Object relations theory

object relationsobjectobject relationobject relations schoolobject-relations theoryObject-relationsunconscious phantasydepressive positionKleinianobject energy
Object relations theory in psychoanalytic psychology is the process of developing a psyche in relation to others in the childhood environment.wikipedia
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Melanie Klein

KleinianKleinKleinians
British psychologists Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, Harry Guntrip, Scott Stuart, and others extended object relations theory during the 1940s and 1950s.
She was the primary figure in the development of object relations theory.

Harry Guntrip

GuntripGuntrip, Harry
British psychologists Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, Harry Guntrip, Scott Stuart, and others extended object relations theory during the 1940s and 1950s.
Henry James Samuel Guntrip (29 May 1901 – 1975) was a British psychologist known for his major contributions to object relations theory or school of Freudian thought.

Ronald Fairbairn

FairbairnW. R. D. FairbairnWilliam Ronald Dodds Fairbairn
Ronald Fairbairn in 1952 independently formulated his theory of object relations.
William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn FRSE (11 August 1889 – 31 December 1964) was a Scottish psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and a central figure in the development of the object relations theory of psychoanalysis.

Donald Winnicott

D. W. WinnicottWinnicottD.W. Winnicott
British psychologists Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, Harry Guntrip, Scott Stuart, and others extended object relations theory during the 1940s and 1950s. In London, those who refused to choose sides were termed the "middle school," whose members included Michael Balint and D.W. Winnicott.
Donald Woods Winnicott (7 April 1896 – 25 January 1971) was an English paediatrician and psychoanalyst who was especially influential in the field of object relations theory and developmental psychology.

Splitting (psychology)

splittingpsychological splittingsplit off
This is a use of splitting as a defense to maintain an attachment relationship in an unsafe world.
Splitting was first described by Ronald Fairbairn in his formulation of object relations theory; it begins as the inability of the infant to combine the fulfilling aspects of the parents (the good object) and their unresponsive aspects (the unsatisfying object) into the same individuals, instead seeing the good and bad as separate.

Michael Balint

Balint, Michaelfocal psychotherapyMichael
In London, those who refused to choose sides were termed the "middle school," whose members included Michael Balint and D.W. Winnicott.
He was a proponent of the Object Relations school.

British Independent Group (psychoanalysis)

Middle GroupIndependent Group Independent Group
While Fairbairn popularized the term "object relations", Melanie Klein's work tends to be most commonly identified with the terms "object relations theory" and "British object relations", at least in contemporary North America, though the influence of 'what is known as the British independent perspective, which argued that the primary motivation of the child is object seeking rather than drive gratification', is becoming increasingly recognized.
Alongside the Kleinians the "Middle Group" represented 'the other division of psychoanalysts who use "object-relations" theory', and for some 'has formed the central core of the British Psychoanalytical Society...interprets in terms of either the Oedipal or the pre-Oedipal relationship'.

Psychoanalytic theory

psychoanalyticpsychoanalysisPsychoanalysts
Object relations theory in psychoanalytic psychology is the process of developing a psyche in relation to others in the childhood environment.
The most important theorists are Erik Erikson (Psychosocial Development), Anna Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Karen Horney, and including the school of object relations.

Psychodynamics

psychodynamicpsychodynamic theorydynamic psychology
While object relations theory is based on psychodynamic theory, it modified it so that the role of biological drives in the formation of adult personality received less emphasis.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
Freud originally identified people in a subject's environment with the term "object" to identify people as the object of drives.
Lacan believed Freud's essential work had been done prior to 1905 and concerned the interpretation of dreams, neurotic symptoms, and slips, which had been based on a revolutionary way of understanding language and its relation to experience and subjectivity, and that ego psychology and object relations theory were based upon misreadings of Freud's work.

Ego psychology

ego psychologistspsychologyEgo
and Anna Freud and ego psychology.

Defence mechanism

defense mechanismdefense mechanismsdefence mechanisms
It also functions as a defense mechanism to defend the self against unbearable feelings of sadness and sorrow, and the internal object of the loved one against the unbearable rage of the self, which, it is feared, could destroy the internal object forever.
His theory is based on ego psychological object relations theory.

Anna Freud

AnnaA. FreudFreudian
and Anna Freud and ego psychology.
Through these then revolutionary ideas Anna provided us with a comprehensive developmental theory and the concept of developmental lines, which combined her father's important drive model with more recent object relations theories emphasizing the importance of parents in child development processes.

Wilfred Bion

W. R. BionBionDr. Wilfred Bion
In Bion's terms, the phantasy image is a preconception that will not be a thought until experience combines with a realization in the world of experience.
6–7).Beta-elements are not amenable to use in dream thoughts but are suited for use in projective identification.

Hatred

hateacrimoniousenmity
Thus, the objects can be receivers of both love and hate, the affective effects of the libido and the death drive.
In his wake, Object relations theory has emphasised the importance of recognising hate in the analytic setting: the analyst acknowledges his own hate (as revealed in the strict time-limits and the fee charged), which in turn may make it possible for the patient to acknowledge and contain their previously concealed hate for the analyst.

Attachment theory

attachmentattachment styleattachment styles
Attachment theory, researched by John Bowlby and others, has continued to deepen our understanding of early object relationships.
The early thinking of the object relations school of psychoanalysis, particularly Melanie Klein, influenced Bowlby.

Otto F. Kernberg

Otto KernbergKernbergOtto Friedmann Kernberg
In making object relations theory more useful as a general psychology N. Gregory Hamilton added the specific ego functions to Otto F. Kernberg's concept of object relations units.
His integrative writings were central to the development of modern object relations, a theory of mind that is perhaps the theory most widely accepted among modern psychoanalysts.

N. Gregory Hamilton

In making object relations theory more useful as a general psychology N. Gregory Hamilton added the specific ego functions to Otto F. Kernberg's concept of object relations units. While object relations theory grew out of psychoanalysis, it has been applied to the general fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy by such authors as N. Gregory Hamilton and Glen O. Gabbard.
Norman Gregory Hamilton (born October 4, 1945) is an American psychiatrist and author known for his contributions to the fields of psychotherapy and object relations theory and for his participation in the national and international debate over the legalization of doctor-assisted suicide.

Donald Meltzer

Ogden and James Grotstein have continued to explore early infantile states of mind, and incorporating the work of Donald Meltzer, Ester Bick and others, postulate a position preceding the paranoid-schizoid.
Some of Meltzer's significant and widely used developments of Kleinian object relations theory are as follows:

James F. Masterson

Masterson, James F.Masterson
Masterson was among the first to bring the psychoanalytic approach known as object relations theory, together with child development theory, to bear on the study of personality disorder.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
In making object relations theory more useful as a general psychology N. Gregory Hamilton added the specific ego functions to Otto F. Kernberg's concept of object relations units.
Among these schools are ego psychology, object relations, and interpersonal, Lacanian, and relational psychoanalysis.

Psychotherapy

psychotherapistpsychotherapeutictherapy
While object relations theory grew out of psychoanalysis, it has been applied to the general fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy by such authors as N. Gregory Hamilton and Glen O. Gabbard.
There are six main schools of psychoanalysis, which all influenced psychodynamic theory: Freudian, ego psychology, object relations theory, self psychology, interpersonal psychoanalysis, and relational psychoanalysis.

Psyche (psychology)

psychehuman psychepsyches
Object relations theory in psychoanalytic psychology is the process of developing a psyche in relation to others in the childhood environment.

Mother

maternitymotherhoodmaternal
Objects are usually internalized images of one's mother, father, or primary caregiver, although they could also consist of parts of a person such as an infant relating to the breast or things in one's inner world (one's internalized image of others).

Father

paternalsirefatherhood
Objects are usually internalized images of one's mother, father, or primary caregiver, although they could also consist of parts of a person such as an infant relating to the breast or things in one's inner world (one's internalized image of others).