Observation

observerobservationsobservedobserveobservableobservationalobservingobservational biasobservesobservers
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.wikipedia
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Information

informativeinputinputs
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
In terms of communication, information is expressed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
The scientific method requires observations of natural phenomena to formulate and test hypotheses.
The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis.

Quantitative research

quantitativequantitative methodsquantitative data
Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring.
The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.

Hypothesis

hypotheseshypotheticalhypothesized
The scientific method requires observations of natural phenomena to formulate and test hypotheses.
For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.

Field research

fieldworkfield workfield studies
5) Test the hypothesis' predictions by an experiment, observational study, field study, or simulation
Field research involves a range of well-defined, although variable, methods: informal interviews, direct observation, participation in the life of the group, collective discussions, analyses of personal documents produced within the group, self-analysis, results from activities undertaken off- or on-line, and life-histories.

Measurement

measuremeasuringmeasured
Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring.
In science, an empirical relationship is a relationship or correlation based solely on observation rather than theory.

Streetlight effect

This is called the "streetlight effect".
The streetlight effect, or the drunkard's search principle, is a type of observational bias that occurs when people only search for something where it is easiest to look.

Observational astronomy

astronomical observationobservationsobservational
Observational astronomy
It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments.

Introspection

introspectivereflectionself-reflection
Introspection
Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is contrasted with external observation.

Observations and Measurements

ISO 19156:2011 ''Geographic information -- Observations and measurementssampling features
Observations and Measurements
Observations and Measurements, shortly known as O&M, is an international standard which defines a conceptual schema encoding for observations, and for features involved in sampling when making observations.

Observational error

systematic errormeasurement errorsystematic bias
Observational error
Systematic error may also refer to an error with a non-zero mean, the effect of which is not reduced when observations are averaged.

Observable variable

observableobserved variablesobserving
Observable quantity
In statistics, observable variable or observable quantity (also manifest variables), as opposed to latent variable, is a variable that can be observed and directly measured.

Primary source

primary sourcesprimaryprimary documents
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

Sense

sensessensoryfive senses
In living beings, observation employs the senses. Human sense impressions are subjective and qualitative, making them difficult to record or compare.

Scientific instrument

scientific instrumentsinstrumentanalytical instruments
In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of scientific instruments. Scientific instruments were developed to aid human abilities of observation, such as weighing scales, clocks, telescopes, microscopes, thermometers, cameras, and tape recorders, and also translate into perceptible form events that are unobservable by the senses, such as indicator dyes, voltmeters, spectrometers, infrared cameras, oscilloscopes, interferometers, geiger counters, and radio receivers.

Phenomenon

phenomenaphenomenalphysical phenomena
Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring.

Counting

inclusive countinginclusivecount
Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring.

List of natural phenomena

natural phenomenanatural phenomenonforces of nature
The scientific method requires observations of natural phenomena to formulate and test hypotheses.

Reproducibility

reproduciblereproducereplicability
6) Draw a conclusion from data gathered in the experiment, or revise the hypothesis or form a new one and repeat the process

Subjectivity

subjectivesubjectivelysubjectivities
Human sense impressions are subjective and qualitative, making them difficult to record or compare.

Qualitative property

qualitativequalitative dataqualitatively
Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring. Human sense impressions are subjective and qualitative, making them difficult to record or compare.

Standard (metrology)

standardstandardscalibration standard
Measurement consists of using observation to compare the phenomenon being observed to a standard unit.

Optical illusion

optical illusionsvisual illusionillusion
Human senses are limited and subject to errors in perception, such as optical illusions.

Weighing scale

scalesscalebalance
Scientific instruments were developed to aid human abilities of observation, such as weighing scales, clocks, telescopes, microscopes, thermometers, cameras, and tape recorders, and also translate into perceptible form events that are unobservable by the senses, such as indicator dyes, voltmeters, spectrometers, infrared cameras, oscilloscopes, interferometers, geiger counters, and radio receivers.

Clock

clockstimepiecemechanical clock
Scientific instruments were developed to aid human abilities of observation, such as weighing scales, clocks, telescopes, microscopes, thermometers, cameras, and tape recorders, and also translate into perceptible form events that are unobservable by the senses, such as indicator dyes, voltmeters, spectrometers, infrared cameras, oscilloscopes, interferometers, geiger counters, and radio receivers.