Observations and explorations of Venus

Exploration of VenusVenusexplorationmorning starObservations of Venusseveral probing proposalsVenus mission
Observations of the planet Venus include those in antiquity, telescopic observations, and from visiting spacecraft.wikipedia
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Atmosphere of Venus

atmosphereVenusian atmosphereVenus
Spacecraft have performed various flybys, orbits, and landings on Venus, including balloon probes that floated in the atmosphere of Venus.
Due to the similarity in pressure and temperature and the fact that breathable air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen) is a lifting gas on Venus in the same way that helium is a lifting gas on Earth, the upper atmosphere has been proposed as a location for both exploration and colonization.

Venus

Morning Starevening starplanet Venus
Spacecraft have performed various flybys, orbits, and landings on Venus, including balloon probes that floated in the atmosphere of Venus. The Ancient Egyptians, for example, believed Venus to be two separate bodies and knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti.
As of 2016, Japan's Akatsuki is in a highly elliptical orbit around Venus since 7 December 2015, and there are several probing proposals under study by Roscosmos, NASA, and India's ISRO.

Zond 1

The Soviet Union launched the Zond 1 probe to Venus in 1964, but it malfunctioned sometime after its May 16 telemetry session.

Venera-D

Venera D
The Venera-D spacecraft was proposed to Roscosmos in 2003 and the concept has been matured since then.

Cylinder seal

cylinder sealscylinderseal
A cylinder seal from the Jemdet Nasr period indicates that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening stars were the same celestial object.

Jemdet Nasr period

Jemdet NasrJemdat NasrUruk III/Jemdet Nasr
A cylinder seal from the Jemdet Nasr period indicates that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening stars were the same celestial object.

Sumer

SumeriansSumeriaSumerian
A cylinder seal from the Jemdet Nasr period indicates that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening stars were the same celestial object.

Goddess

goddessessacred femininefemale deity
The Sumerians named the planet after the goddess Inanna, who was known as Ishtar by the later Akkadians and Babylonians.

Inanna

IshtarIštarInana
The Sumerians named the planet after the goddess Inanna, who was known as Ishtar by the later Akkadians and Babylonians.

Akkadian Empire

AkkadAkkadianAkkadians
The Sumerians named the planet after the goddess Inanna, who was known as Ishtar by the later Akkadians and Babylonians.

Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa

Venus tablets of Ammisaduqaastronomical documentsVenus tablet
One of the oldest surviving astronomical documents, from the Babylonian library of Ashurbanipal around 1600 BC, is a 21-year record of the appearances of Venus.

Babylon

BabilBabelAncient Babylon
One of the oldest surviving astronomical documents, from the Babylonian library of Ashurbanipal around 1600 BC, is a 21-year record of the appearances of Venus.

Ashurbanipal

AssurbanipalAssur-bani-palAššur-bāni-apli
One of the oldest surviving astronomical documents, from the Babylonian library of Ashurbanipal around 1600 BC, is a 21-year record of the appearances of Venus.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
The Ancient Egyptians, for example, believed Venus to be two separate bodies and knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The Ancient Greeks called the morning star Φωσφόρος, Phosphoros (Latinized Phosphorus), the "Bringer of Light" or Ἐωσφόρος, Eosphoros (Latinized Eosphorus), the "Bringer of Dawn".

Hesperus

Hesperosevening starVesper
The Ancient Greeks called the morning star Φωσφόρος, Phosphoros (Latinized Phosphorus), the "Bringer of Light" or Ἐωσφόρος, Eosphoros (Latinized Eosphorus), the "Bringer of Dawn". Hesperos would be translated into Latin as Vesper and Phosphoros as Lucifer ("Light Bearer").

Phosphorus (morning star)

PhosphorusEosphorosEosphorus
The Ancient Greeks called the morning star Φωσφόρος, Phosphoros (Latinized Phosphorus), the "Bringer of Light" or Ἐωσφόρος, Eosphoros (Latinized Eosphorus), the "Bringer of Dawn".

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
By Hellenistic times, the ancient Greeks identified it as a single planet, which they named after their goddess of love, Aphrodite (Phoenician Astarte), a planetary name that is retained in modern Greek.

Aphrodite

CyprisVenusAphrodite Urania
By Hellenistic times, the ancient Greeks identified it as a single planet, which they named after their goddess of love, Aphrodite (Phoenician Astarte), a planetary name that is retained in modern Greek.

Astarte

AshtorethAshtartAstoreth
By Hellenistic times, the ancient Greeks identified it as a single planet, which they named after their goddess of love, Aphrodite (Phoenician Astarte), a planetary name that is retained in modern Greek.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
By Hellenistic times, the ancient Greeks identified it as a single planet, which they named after their goddess of love, Aphrodite (Phoenician Astarte), a planetary name that is retained in modern Greek.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Hesperos would be translated into Latin as Vesper and Phosphoros as Lucifer ("Light Bearer").