Observatory

astronomical observatoryobservatoriesastronomical observatoriesground-based astronomical observatoryastronomicalground-basedhousing large telescopesWeather Observation Stationastronomical observationastronomical observations
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.wikipedia
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Light pollution

light-pollutedglarelight
For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population, to avoid the effects of light pollution.
Light pollution competes with starlight in the night sky for urban residents, interferes with astronomical observatories, and, like any other form of pollution, disrupts ecosystems and has adverse health effects.

Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed.
In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year.

Space telescope

space observatoryspace observatoriesAstronomy
Astronomical observatories are mainly divided into four categories: space-based, airborne, ground-based, and underground-based.
Space telescopes avoid many of the problems of ground-based observatories, such as light pollution and distortion of electromagnetic radiation (scintillation).

Paranal Observatory

ParanalParanal Obs.Cerro Paranal
Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the USA, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and Paranal Observatory in Chile.
Paranal Observatory is an astronomical observatory operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO); it is located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile on Cerro Paranal at 2,635 m altitude, 120 km south of Antofagasta.

Kitt Peak National Observatory

Kitt PeakKitt Peak National Obs.Kitt Peak Obs.
Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the USA, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and Paranal Observatory in Chile.
The Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) is a United States astronomical observatory located on Kitt Peak of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono O'odham Nation, 88 km west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona.

Roque de los Muchachos Observatory

La PalmaLa Palma Obs.ORM
Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the USA, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and Paranal Observatory in Chile.
Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Spanish: Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, ORM) is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands.

Calar Alto Observatory

Calar AltoCAHACalar Alto Obs.
Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the USA, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and Paranal Observatory in Chile.
The Calar Alto Observatory (Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán or Deutsch-Spanisches Astronomisches Zentrum, respectively "Spanish–German Astronomical Centre" and "German–Spanish Astronomical Centre") is an astronomical observatory located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2168 m mountain in the Sierra de Los Filabres range.

Very Large Array

VLAEVLAD. S. Heeschen
Some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales, Australia, and Chajnantor in Chile.
The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a centimeter-wavelength radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro.

Arecibo Observatory

AreciboArecibo radio telescopeArecibo Planetary Radar
Some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales, Australia, and Chajnantor in Chile.
This observatory is operated by University of Central Florida, Yang Enterprises and UMET, under cooperative agreement with the US National Science Foundation (NSF).

Llano de Chajnantor Observatory

Llano de ChajnantorChajnantorChajnantor Science Reserve
Some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales, Australia, and Chajnantor in Chile.
Llano de Chajnantor Observatory is the name for a group of astronomical observatories located at an altitude of over 4800 m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

Radio telescope

radio telescopesradiotelescoperadio-telescope
Beginning in 1930s, radio telescopes have been built for use in the field of radio astronomy to observe the Universe in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Radio observatories are preferentially located far from major centers of population to avoid electromagnetic interference (EMI) from radio, television, radar, motor vehicles, and other manmade electronic devices.

University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory

It has now been surpassed by the new University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory, an optical-infrared telescope on a remote 5640 m mountaintop in the Atacama Desert of Chile.
The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) is an astronomical observatory located on the summit of Cerro Chajnantor, at an altitude of 5640 m within a lava dome in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

Maragheh observatory

MaraghaMaragha observatoryMaragha school
1259: Maragheh observatory, Azerbaijan, Iran
Maragheh observatory, was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer.

Ulugh Beg Observatory

Samarkand observatoryobservatoryan observatory
1420: Ulugh Beg Observatory, Samarqand, Uzbekistan
The Ulugh Beg Observatory is an observatory in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

Astronomical seeing

seeingatmospheric seeingatmospheric turbulence
At high elevations, the Earth's atmosphere is thinner, thereby minimizing the effects of atmospheric turbulence and resulting in better astronomical "seeing".
The best conditions give a seeing disk diameter of ~0.4 arcseconds and are found at high-altitude observatories on small islands such as Mauna Kea or La Palma.

Cheomseongdae

Cheomseongdae Observatory
Cheomseongdae, South Korea
Cheomseongdae (Hangul: 첨성대) is an astronomical observatory in Gyeongju, South Korea.

Beijing Ancient Observatory

Beijing ObservatoryBeijing to construct an observatoryBeijing's Imperial Observatory
1442: Beijing Ancient Observatory, China
The Beijing Ancient Observatory is a pretelescopic observatory located in Beijing, China.

Royal Observatory, Greenwich

Royal ObservatoryGreenwichGreenwich Observatory
1675: Royal Greenwich Observatory, England
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.

Leiden Observatory

LeidenLeiden observatoriesobservatory
1633: Leiden Observatory, Netherlands
Leiden Observatory (Sterrewacht Leiden in Dutch) is an astronomical observatory in the city of Leiden, the Netherlands.

Dunsink Observatory

Andrews chairAndrews chair of astronomyAndrews Professor
1785: Dunsink Observatory, Ireland
The Dunsink Observatory is an astronomical observatory established in 1785 in the townland of Dunsink near the city of Dublin, Ireland.

Pulkovo Observatory

PulkovoPulkovo Astronomical ObservatoryCentral Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences
1839: Pulkovo Observatory, Russia
The Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory (Пу́лковская астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия, official name The Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences at Pulkovo, Гла́вная астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия Росси́йской акаде́мии нау́к; formerly Imperial Observatory at Pulkowo ), the principal astronomical observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, located 19 km south of Saint Petersburg on Pulkovo Heights 75 m above sea level.

Yale University Observatory

Leitner Family Observatory and Planetarium
1830: Yale University Observatory Atheneum, USA
The Yale University Observatory, also known as the Leitner Family Observatory and Planetarium, is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Yale University, and maintained for student use.

Lick Observatory

LickMount HamiltonLick Observatory Supernova Search
1888: Lick Observatory, USA
The Lick Observatory is an astronomical observatory, owned and operated by the University of California.

Stockholm Observatory

SaltsjöbadenDepartment of AstronomyOld Stockholm Observatory
1753: Stockholm Observatory, Sweden
The Stockholm Observatory (Stockholms observatorium, 050) is an astronomical observatory and institution in Stockholm, Sweden, founded in the 18th century and today part of Stockholm University.

Tartu Observatory

Dorpat ObservatoryDorpatDorpat/Tartu Observatory
1811: Tartu Old Observatory, Estonia
The Tartu Observatory (Tartu Observatoorium) is the largest astronomical observatory in Estonia.