Observer-expectancy effect

experimenter effectobserver effectexpectancy biasexpectation biasDiagnostic biasexpectancyexpectancy effectsexperimenter and subject biasesexperimenter expectancy effectsexperimenter-expectancy effect
The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.wikipedia
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Reactivity (psychology)

reactivityobserver effectreactive
The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.
An experimenter effect occurs when the experimenters subtly communicate their expectations to the participants, who alter their behavior to conform to these expectations.

Clever Hans

Clever Hans effectClever Hans' effectKluge Hans
The classic example of experimenter bias is that of "Clever Hans", an Orlov Trotter horse claimed by his owner von Osten to be able to do arithmetic and other tasks.
In honour of Pfungst's study, the anomalous artifact has since been referred to as the Clever Hans effect and has continued to be important knowledge in the observer-expectancy effect and later studies in animal cognition.

Demand characteristics

demanddemand biasdemand characteristic
It may include conscious or unconscious influences on subject behavior including creation of demand characteristics that influence subjects, and altered or selective recording of experimental results themselves.

Scientific control

controlcontrolscontrolled
It is a significant threat to a study's internal validity, and is therefore typically controlled using a double-blind experimental design.
If this information were to become available to trial participants, patients could receive a larger placebo effect, researchers could influence the experiment to meet their expectations (the observer effect), and evaluators could be subject to confirmation bias.

Blinded experiment

double-blinddouble blindblinded
It is a significant threat to a study's internal validity, and is therefore typically controlled using a double-blind experimental design.
Good blinding can reduce or eliminate experimental biases that arise from a participants' expectations, observer's effect on the participants, observer bias, confirmation bias, and other sources.

Cognitive bias

cognitive biasesbiascognitive
The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.

Hawthorne effect

Hawthorne studiesHawthorne experimentsHawthorne
The Hawthorne effect (also referred to as the observer effect ) is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.

List of cognitive biases

cognitive biasesList of biases in judgment and decision makingbiases

Confirmation bias

Backfire effectdisconfirmation biasconfirmation
Confirmation bias can lead to the experimenter interpreting results incorrectly because of the tendency to look for information that conforms to their hypothesis, and overlook information that argues against it.

Participant observation

participant observerparticipant-observationparticipant-observer
Participant observation can only do so much for the researcher because the sole presence of the researcher in the field will influence the participants' behavior (see:observer-expectancy effect).

Subject-expectancy effect

subject-expectancy
Like the observer-expectancy effect, it is often a cause of "odd" results in many experiments.

Pygmalion effect

Rosenthal effectLate bloomers effectPygmalion complex
This study supported the hypothesis that reality can be positively or negatively influenced by the expectations of others, called the observer-expectancy effect.

Observer bias

experimenter's biasexperimenter biasdid not meet their preconceptions
* Observer-expectancy effect, when a researcher subconsciously influences the participants of an experiment

Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
Confirmation bias can lead to the experimenter interpreting results incorrectly because of the tendency to look for information that conforms to their hypothesis, and overlook information that argues against it.

Internal validity

validityinternalhistory
It is a significant threat to a study's internal validity, and is therefore typically controlled using a double-blind experimental design.

Orlov Trotter

Orlov stallions
The classic example of experimenter bias is that of "Clever Hans", an Orlov Trotter horse claimed by his owner von Osten to be able to do arithmetic and other tasks.

Horse

horsesracehorseEquus caballus
The classic example of experimenter bias is that of "Clever Hans", an Orlov Trotter horse claimed by his owner von Osten to be able to do arithmetic and other tasks.

Elementary arithmetic

arithmeticBasic arithmeticbasic arithmetic operations
The classic example of experimenter bias is that of "Clever Hans", an Orlov Trotter horse claimed by his owner von Osten to be able to do arithmetic and other tasks.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
As a result of the large public interest in Clever Hans, philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf, along with his assistant Oskar Pfungst, investigated these claims.

Psychologist

psychologistsclinical psychologistresearch psychologist
As a result of the large public interest in Clever Hans, philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf, along with his assistant Oskar Pfungst, investigated these claims.