Observer bias

experimenter's biasexperimenter biasdid not meet their preconceptionsexperimental biasExperimenterexperimenters' expectationsresearcher bias
In research, observer bias is a form of detection bias originating at a study's stage of observing or recording information.wikipedia
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Bias (statistics)

biasbiasedstatistical bias
In research, observer bias is a form of detection bias originating at a study's stage of observing or recording information.

Blinded experiment

double-blinddouble blindblinded
Blinded experiments are used to limit observer bias.
Good blinding can reduce or eliminate experimental biases that arise from a participants' expectations, observer's effect on the participants, observer bias, confirmation bias, and other sources.

Observer-expectancy effect

experimenter effectobserver effectexpectancy bias
* Observer-expectancy effect, when a researcher subconsciously influences the participants of an experiment

Cognitive bias

cognitive biasesbiascognitive
Different observers may assess subjective criteria differently, and cognitive biases (including preconceptions and assumptions) can affect how a subject is assessed.

Outcome measure

measure of effectoutcomeoutcome measures
For example, being aware of a subject's disease status may introduce a bias in how the outcome is assessed.

Funding bias

Industry Funded Studiesinfluenced the outcome
It is an instance of experimenter's bias.

List of mammals displaying homosexual behavior

homosexually active mammalsmammals exhibiting homosexual behavior
Bruce Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not officially observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people, which made homosexuality in animals a taboo subject.

List of animals displaying homosexual behavior

List of animals displaying homosexual behaviourspecies known to engage in homosexuality
Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not "officially" observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards nonheterosexual people, making the homosexual theme taboo.

Stereotypes of South Asians

Indian stereotypesstereotypedAsian stereotypes
Further, the study found experimenter's bias in a population wide study that included native British people, people of South Asian descent and people from other parts of the world.

Homosexual behavior in animals

homosexualHomosexuality in animalsHomosexual behaviour
Until recent times, the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not "officially" observed on a large scale, possibly due to observer bias caused by social attitudes to same-sex sexual behavior, innocent confusion, lack of interest, distaste, scientists fearing loss of their grants or even from a fear of "being ridiculed by their colleagues".

Forensic identification

forensic evidenceidentificationforensic testing
In court cases, forensic scientists can fall victim to observer bias when not sufficiently blinded to the case or results of other pertinent tests.

List of cognitive biases

cognitive biasesList of biases in judgment and decision makingbiases

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

EMDREye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing(EMDR)
While multiple meta-analyses have found it to be just as effective as trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of PTSD, these findings are tentative given the low numbers in the studies, high risk rates of researcher bias and high dropout rates.

Placebo

placebo effectplacebosplacebo studies
It is harder still to tell the difference between the placebo effect and the effects of response bias, observer bias and other flaws in trial methodology, as a trial comparing placebo treatment and no treatment will not be a blinded experiment.

Philosophy of social science

philosophy of social sciencesphilosophy of the social sciencesscientific rationalism
Today, practitioners of both social and physical sciences recognize the distorting effect of observer bias and structural limitations.

Index of psychology articles

List of psychological topics
Experimenter's bias -

Rupert Sheldrake

morphic fieldmorphic resonancemorphic fields
Furthermore, Sheldrake's experimental methods have been criticised for being poorly designed and subject to experimenter bias.

Positivism

positivistpositivisticpositivists
Practitioners of positivism today acknowledge in far greater detail observer bias and structural limitations.

Eyewitness identification

eyewitnesseyewitness testimonyIdentification evidence
The occurrence of "experimenter bias" is well documented across the sciences.

Psychokinesis

telekinesistelekineticpsychokinetic
A 1952 study tested for experimenter's bias with respect to psychokinesis.

Between-group design

between-subjects designbetween-subjects
In order to avoid experimental bias, experimental blinds are usually applied in between-group designs.

List of abuse allegations made through facilitated communication

List of abuse allegations made via facilitated communicationCarlafalse abuse allegations made through facilitated communication
Long before they even thought to put pen to paper and write their extravagant tales of extraordinary awakenings, they should have heeded not just the technical lessons of Clever Hans, but the findings of more than a century of scientific and practical investigations of automatic writing, experimenter bias, mental telepathy, unconscious influence, subjective validation, stimulus leakage, expectancy effects, deception and self-delusion.