Obsessive–compulsive disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorderobsessive compulsive disorderOCDobsessive-compulsiveobsessiveobsessive compulsiveobsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)obsessionobsessive–compulsiveobsessive compulsive disorders
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Compulsive behavior

compulsivecompulsioncompulsions
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which a person feels the need to perform certain routines repeatedly (called "compulsions"), or has certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
A major cause of the compulsive behaviors is said to be obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).

Clomipramine

Anafranilchlorimipramineclomipramine hydrochloride
Treatment involves counseling, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and sometimes antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or clomipramine.
It is used for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, and chronic pain.

Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale

Y-BOCSYale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive ScaleYale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)
Rating scales such as the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) can be used to assess the severity.
The Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is a test to rate the severity of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which a person feels the need to perform certain routines repeatedly (called "compulsions"), or has certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Hand washing

handwashinghand hygienewashing hands
Common compulsions include hand washing, counting of things, and checking to see if a door is locked.
Excessive hand washing is commonly seen as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Treatment involves counseling, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and sometimes antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or clomipramine.
SSRIs are a second-line treatment of adult obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) with mild functional impairment and as first-line treatment for those with moderate or severe impairment.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
The condition is associated with tics, anxiety disorder, and an increased risk of suicide.
Other conditions implicated include schizophrenia (14%), personality disorders (8%), obsessive compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

obsessive-compulsive personality disorderobsessive-compulsiveobsessive compulsive personality disorder
Other disorders with similar symptoms include anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, eating disorders, tic disorders, and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder.
This is a distinctly different disorder from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and the relation between the two is contentious.

Sexual obsessions

sexual obsessionobsessed with sexobsessive
Some people with OCD experience sexual obsessions that may involve intrusive thoughts or images of "kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, anal sex, intercourse, incest, and rape" with "strangers, acquaintances, parents, children, family members, friends, coworkers, animals, and religious figures", and can include "heterosexual or homosexual content" with persons of any age.
In the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), these are extremely common, and can become extremely debilitating, making the person ashamed of the symptoms and reluctant to seek help.

Trichotillomania

Hair pullingHair Pulling Disordercompulsion of eating one's own hair
Excessive skin picking, hair-pulling, nail biting, and other body-focused repetitive behavior disorders are all on the obsessive–compulsive spectrum.
It occurs more commonly in those with obsessive compulsive disorder.

Atypical antipsychotic

atypical antipsychoticsatypicalsecond-generation antipsychotics
Atypical antipsychotics may be useful when used in addition to an SSRI in treatment-resistant cases but are also associated with an increased risk of side effects.
They are also frequently used to treat agitation associated with dementia, anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (an off-label use).

Perfectionism (psychology)

perfectionistperfectionismperfectionists
The phrase obsessive–compulsive is sometimes used in an informal manner unrelated to OCD to describe someone as being excessively meticulous, perfectionistic, absorbed, or otherwise fixated.
Obsessive personality type is different from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in that OCD is a clinical disorder that may be associated with specific ritualized behavior or thoughts.

Tic

ticsnervous ticsnervous tic
Compulsions are different from tics (such as touching, tapping, rubbing, or blinking) and stereotyped movements (such as head banging, body rocking, or self-biting), which usually are not as complex and are not precipitated by obsessions.
Tics must be distinguished from movements of other movement disorders such as chorea, dystonia, myoclonus; movements exhibited in stereotypic movement disorder or some autistic people, and the compulsions of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and seizure activity.

Eating disorder

eating disorderseatingdisordered eating
Other disorders with similar symptoms include anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, eating disorders, tic disorders, and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder.

PANDAS

Childhood acute neuropsychiatric symptomsPANDAS syndromePediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections
A controversial hypothesis is that some cases of rapid onset of OCD in children and adolescents may be caused by a syndrome connected to Group A streptococcal infections, known as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a hypothesis that there exists a subset of children with rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders and these symptoms are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections.

Relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder

almost idolizesintimate relationships (ROCD)Relationship obsessions (ROCD)
A more intense obsession could be a preoccupation with the thought or image of someone close to them dying or intrusions related to "relationship rightness".
In psychology, relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder (ROCD) is a form of obsessive–compulsive disorder focusing on intimate relationships.

Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
There are severe cases in which the person has an unshakable belief in the context of OCD that is difficult to differentiate from psychotic disorders.

Exposure therapy

exposure and response preventionexposureExposure with Response Prevention
It may be more difficult to do ERP therapy on such people because they may be unwilling to cooperate, at least initially.
Numerous studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in the treatment of disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD, and specific phobias.

Obsessive–compulsive spectrum

obsessive-compulsive spectrumobsessive compulsive spectrum disorder
Excessive skin picking, hair-pulling, nail biting, and other body-focused repetitive behavior disorders are all on the obsessive–compulsive spectrum.
The obsessive–compulsive spectrum is a model of medical classification where various psychiatric, neurological and/or medical conditions are described as existing on a spectrum of conditions related to obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).

Compulsive hoarding

hoardingcompulsive hoarderhoarder
For example, an individual who engages in compulsive hoarding might be inclined to treat inorganic matter as if it had the sentience or rights of living organisms, while accepting that such behavior is irrational on a more intellectual level.
It was not clear whether compulsive hoarding is a separate, isolated disorder, or rather a symptom of another condition, such as OCD, but the current DSM lists hoarding disorder as both a mental disability and a possible symptom for OCD.

Thought suppression

suppressionsuppress thoughtssuppress
A person may attempt to ignore or suppress such obsessions, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action, and will tend to recognize the obsessions as idiosyncratic or irrational.
It is often associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
The involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in OCD is shared with bipolar disorder and may explain their high degree of comorbidity.
The diagnosis of bipolar disorder can be complicated by coexisting (comorbid) psychiatric conditions including the following: obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance-use disorder, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, premenstrual syndrome (including premenstrual dysphoric disorder), or panic disorder.

Tic disorder

tic disorderstics
The condition is associated with tics, anxiety disorder, and an increased risk of suicide. Other disorders with similar symptoms include anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, eating disorders, tic disorders, and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder.
Tics should be distinguished from other causes of tourettism, stereotypies, chorea, dyskinesias, myoclonus and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Psychotherapy

psychotherapistpsychotherapeutictherapy
Treatment involves counseling, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and sometimes antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or clomipramine.
Other types include reality therapy/choice theory, multimodal therapy, and therapies for specific disorders including PTSD therapies such as cognitive processing therapy and EMDR; substance abuse therapies such as relapse prevention and contingency management; OCD therapies such as exposure and response prevention; and co-occurring disorders therapies such as Seeking Safety.

Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop

cortico-basal gangliacortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop (CBGTC)cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical
The involvement of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop in OCD as well as the high rates of comorbidity between OCD and ADHD have led some to draw a link in their mechanism.
It is of particular relevance to hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, as well as to mental disorders of control, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette syndrome.