Occitan language

Linguistic evolution in southwest Europe from 1000 to 2000 C.E.
This bilingual street sign in Toulouse, like many such signs found in Toulouse's historical districts, is maintained primarily for its antique charm, and is typical of what little remains of the lenga d'òc in southern French cities.
Aranese signage in Bossòst, Val d'Aran, Spain
Occitan dialects according to Pierre Bec
Supradialectal classification of Occitan according to Bec
Supradialectal classification of Occitan according to Sumien
According to the testimony of Bernadette Soubirous, the Virgin Mary spoke to her (Lourdes, 25 March 1858) in Gascon saying: Que soy era Immaculada Councepciou ("I am the Immaculate Conception", the phrase is reproduced under this statue in the Lourdes grotto with a Mistralian/Febusian spelling), confirming the proclamation of this Catholic dogma four years earlier.
Inscription in Occitan in the Abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde, Sorde-l'Abbaye: "Blessed are those who die in the Lord."

Romance language spoken in Southern France, Monaco, Italy's Occitan Valleys, as well as Spain's Val d'Aran; collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to as Occitània.

- Occitan language

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Languedocien dialect

The spread of Languedocien in the Occitan area.
Dialects and sub-dialects of Occitan according to D. Sumien
Supradialectal classification of Occitan according to P. Bec<ref>{{Cite book|last=Bec|first=Pierre|title=Manuel pratique d’occitan moderne|publisher=Picard|year=1973|location=Paris}}</ref>
Supradialectal classification of Occitan according to D. Sumien<ref>{{Cite book|last=Sumien|first=Domergue|title=La standardisation pluricentrique de l'occitan: nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie|publisher=Brepols|year=2006|location=Turnhout}}</ref>

Languedocien (French name, ), Languedocian or Lengadocian, is an Occitan dialect spoken in rural parts of southern France such as Languedoc, Rouergue, Quercy, Agenais and Southern Périgord.

Southern France

Defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean Sea and Italy.

Nice is often considered to be Southern France's best known city abroad, although Marseille is the largest.
Coastal road near Sainte-Maxime
Lavender fields are a well known feature of the South of France, mainly located in Provence
Pont du Gard, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
A view of vineyards in Vaucluse, producing Provence wine
Traditional landscape of the historical province of Béarn, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department
Village of Fontaine-de-Vaucluse near Avignon

The area corresponds in large part to Occitania (Occitanie) in southern Europe, the historical and cultural region in which Occitan (langue d'oc) – as distinct from the langues d'oïl of northern France – was the predominant language.

Provençal dialect

The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

Provençal (,, ; provençal , ; provençau or prouvençau ) is a variety of Occitan spoken by people in Provence and parts of Drôme.

Limousin dialect

Linguistic evolution in southwest Europe from 1000 to 2000 C.E.

Limousin (lemosin) is a dialect of the Occitan language, spoken in the three departments of Limousin, parts of Charente and the Dordogne in the southwest of France.

Auvergnat

Auvergnat dialect boundaries
Auvergnat dialect delimitation
North-occitan dialect
Arverno-mediteraneù Occitan Linguistic group
Arverno-lemosin dialect (Jacques Allières researches)

Auvergnat or Occitan auvergnat (endonym: auvernhat ) is a northern dialect of Occitan spoken in central and southern France, in particular in the former administrative region of Auvergne.

Vivaro-Alpine dialect

Map of Occitan dialects; Vivaro-Alpine dialect in the northeast.

Vivaro-Alpine (vivaroalpenc, vivaroaupenc) is a variety of Occitan spoken in southeastern France (namely, around the Dauphiné area) and northwestern Italy (the Occitan Valleys of Piedmont and Liguria).

Catalonia

Autonomous community of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

The Roca dels Moros contain paintings protected as part of the Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, a World Heritage Site
Iberian fortress Els Vilars in Arbeca
A Roman aqueduct in Tarragona
Origins of the blason of the County of Barcelona, by Claudi Lorenzale
Petronilla of Aragon and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, dynastic union of the Crown of Aragon
Hug IV, count of Empúries, and Pero Maça during the conquest of Mallorca (1229)
A 15th-century miniature of the Catalan Courts
The Principality of Catalonia (1608)
Corpus de Sang (7 June 1640), one of the main events of the Reaper's War. Painted in 1910
Third Siege of Girona (1809), Peninsular War against Napoleon
Demonstration after the Tragic Week, 1909
Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic on 14 April 1931 in Barcelona
Francisco Franco in Reus, 1940
The Olympic flame in the Olympic Stadium Lluís Companys of Barcelona during the 1992 Summer Olympics
Catalan president, Carles Puigdemont, addresses to the crowd following the unilateral declaration of independence on 27 October
Climates of Catalonia:
Geomorphologic map of Catalonia:
Besiberri in Catalan Pyrenees
Mountain of Montserrat and the monastery
Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny Massif
Lake of Banyoles
Tossa de Mar, Costa Brava
Lluís Companys, second president of the Generalitat of Catalonia between 1933 and 1940, executed by Franco's regime
The first Statute of Catalonia, 1932
Pere Aragonès, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia
Administrative divisions of Catalonia
Catalonia products treemap, 2020
Aerial view of Barcelona, Spain
Peach fields in Aitona
Costa Brava beach. Tourism plays an important role in the Catalan economy.
Industrial park in Castellbisbal
Factories, La Pobla de Mafumet, Tarragona
Eix Macià, Sabadell
Barcelona Airport tower
Aerial view of Zona Franca and the Port of Barcelona, Spain
Autovia C-16 (Eix del Llobregat)
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High-speed train (AVE) at Camp de Tarragona
Catalan-speaking regions of Europe
Fragment of the Greuges de Guirard Isarn (c. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan, predating the famous Homilies d'Organyà by a century
The Medieval church of Sant Climent de Taüll, located at the foothills of the Pyrenees, in the province of Lleida
Sagrada Família, Barcelona
Mercè Rodoreda
Ana María Matute
Castell 4 de 9 amb folre i pilar by Colla Vella de Valls
Gegants i capgrossos during the festa major of La Seu d'Urgell
A tió exhibited at Plaça Sant Jaume in Barcelona in the 2010–2011 Christmas season.
Sardana
Logo of Televisió de Catalunya
Sitges Film Festival of 2009
Flag of Catalonia
Pa amb tomàquet (bread with tomato)
An aerial view of Barcelona
The city of Tarragona
The city of Lleida
The city of Girona
thumb|Olympic Park of Montjuïc, Barcelona. At the centre, the Olympic Stadium Lluís Companys
thumb|Camp Nou, home of FC Barcelona
thumb|Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya
thumb|Pep Guardiola

The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.

Val d'Aran

Administrative entity (formerly considered a comarca) in Lleida, Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, 620.47 km2 in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.

Map of southern France with the Occitan dialects, showcasing Aranese
Garonne in Val d'Aran near 1840 by Eugène de Malbos.

Aranese is the standardized form of the local Gascon variety of the Occitan language.

Eastern Lombard dialect

Group of closely related variants of Lombard, a Gallo-Italic dialect spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino.

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria

According to those who consider it a language, Eastern Lombard is a Romance language of the Gallo-Italic branch, closer to Occitan, Catalan, French, etc. than to Italian, with a Celtic substratum.

Frédéric Mistral

French writer of Occitan literature and lexicographer of the Provençal form of the language.

Statue of Frédéric Mistral in Arles
Plaque on the rue Louis Pasteur in Avignon where Joseph Roumanille taught such brilliant future poets as Anselme Matthieu and Frédéric Mistral
Mistral during his career.
Relief of Mistral by Jean Barnabé Amy

He received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist".