Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

occupied Polandoccupation of PolandGerman-occupied PolandGerman occupationNazi occupation of PolandNazi occupationGerman occupation of PolandoccupationNazi-occupied Polandoccupied
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.wikipedia
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Polish resistance movement in World War II

Polish resistancePolish resistance movementPolish underground
Before Operation Barbarossa, Germany and the Soviet Union coordinated their Poland-related policies, most visibly in the four Gestapo–NKVD conferences, where the occupiers discussed plans for dealing with the Polish resistance movement
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance movement in all of occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation.

War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II

World War II atrocities in PolandWorld War II crimes in PolandList of Polish Martyrdom sites
Around 6 million Polish citizens—nearly 21.4% of Poland's population—died between 1939 and 1945 as a result of the occupation, half of whom were ethnic Poles and the other half Polish Jews.
These crimes were committed in occupied Poland on a tremendous scale.

Intelligenzaktion

intelligentsia actionAktion gegen die polnische Intelligenzdeprived of their leaders and most of their intelligentsia
The Nazi plans also called for Poland's 3.3 million Jews to be exterminated; the non-Jewish majority's extermination was planned for the long term and initiated through the mass murder of its political, religious, and intellectual elites at first, which was meant to make the formation of any organized top-down resistance more difficult.
The operations were conducted to realise the Germanization of the western regions of occupied Poland, before territorial annexation to the German Reich.

Gestapo–NKVD conferences

Gestapo-NKVD ConferencesGestapo–NKVD conferences (1939-1940)Gestapo–NKVD conferences (1939–1940)
Before Operation Barbarossa, Germany and the Soviet Union coordinated their Poland-related policies, most visibly in the four Gestapo–NKVD conferences, where the occupiers discussed plans for dealing with the Polish resistance movement
After the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 23 August 1939, Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, and the Soviet Union invaded Poland on 17 September, resulting in the occupation of Poland by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.

Supreme National Tribunal

Supreme National Tribunal of PolandSupreme National Tribunal for the Trial of War CriminalsSupreme National Tribunal for Trial of War Criminals
After Germany lost the war, the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials and Poland's Supreme National Tribunal concluded that the aim of German policies in Poland – the extermination of Poles and Jews – had "all the characteristics of genocide in the biological meaning of this term."
Nazi Germany occupied Poland in 1939 and carried out many atrocities.

German minority in Poland

German minorityGermansGerman
For months prior to the beginning of World War II in 1939, German newspapers and leaders had carried out a national and international propaganda campaign accusing Polish authorities of organizing or tolerating violent ethnic cleansing of ethnic Germans living in Poland.
When the German occupation of Poland began, the Selbstschutz took an active part in Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles.

Monowitz concentration camp

MonowitzBuna WerkeAuschwitz III
Only high-ranking officials knew that one of the purposes of some of the camps, known as extermination camps (or death camps), was mass murder of the undesirable minorities; officially the prisoners were used in enterprises such as production of synthetic rubber, as was the case of a plant owned by IG Farben, whose laborers came from Auschwitz III camp, or Monowitz.
Monowitz concentration camp (also known as Monowitz-Buna, Buna and Auschwitz III) was a Nazi concentration camps and labor camp (Arbeitslager) run by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland from 1942–1945, during World War II and the Holocaust.

Majdanek concentration camp

MajdanekMaidanekMajdanek extermination camp
Tens of thousands of the expelled, with no place to go, were simply imprisoned in the Auschwitz (Oświęcim) and Majdanek concentration camps.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.

Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

GhettoJewish ghettoghettoised Jews
Following the invasion of Poland in 1939 most of the approximately 3.5 million Polish Jews were rounded up and put into newly established ghettos by Nazi Germany.
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland were established during World War II in hundreds of locations across occupied Poland.

Operation Reinhard

Aktion ReinhardAktion ReinhardtOperation Reinhardt
The extermination program was codenamed Operation Reinhard.
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt; also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename of the secretive World War II German plan to exterminate Poland's Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland.

History of the Jews in Poland

Polish JewsPolish-JewishJewish
Around 6 million Polish citizens—nearly 21.4% of Poland's population—died between 1939 and 1945 as a result of the occupation, half of whom were ethnic Poles and the other half Polish Jews. Following the invasion of Poland in 1939 most of the approximately 3.5 million Polish Jews were rounded up and put into newly established ghettos by Nazi Germany.
Although the Holocaust occurred largely in German-occupied Poland, there was little collaboration with the Nazis by its citizens.

Treblinka extermination camp

TreblinkaTreblinka concentration campTreblinka II
Three secret extermination camps set up specifically for Operation Reinhard; Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.

Polish culture during World War II

closure of most Polish educational institutions and repressions against teachersWorld War IIa concentrated effort to destroy Polish culture
Nazi Germany engaged in a concentrated effort to destroy Polish culture.
Polish culture during World War II was suppressed by the occupying powers of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, both of whom were hostile to Poland's people and cultural heritage.

Sobibor extermination camp

SobiborSobibórSobibór extermination camp
Three secret extermination camps set up specifically for Operation Reinhard; Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor.
It was located in the forest next to the railway station of Sobibór within the semi-colonial territory of General Government in occupied Poland.

Belzec extermination camp

BelzecBełżecBełżec extermination camp
Three secret extermination camps set up specifically for Operation Reinhard; Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor.
It was situated about 0.5 km south of the local railroad station of Bełżec, in the new Distrikt Lublin of the semi-colonial General Government territory of German-occupied Poland.

Germanisation

GermanizationGermanizedGermanised
Non-German population on the occupied lands were subject to forced resettlement, Germanization, economic exploitation, and slow but progressive extermination.

Nazi persecution of the Catholic Church in Poland

brutal suppressionmost extreme persecutionNazi persecution of the church
The Nazis also persecuted the Catholic Church in Poland and other, smaller religions.
The Catholic Church in Poland was brutally suppressed by the Nazis during the German Occupation of Poland (1939-1945).

Polish government-in-exile

Polish government in exilePolandgovernment-in-exile
Despite the military defeat of the Polish Army in September 1939, the Polish government itself never surrendered, instead evacuating West, where it formed the Polish government in Exile.
The Polish government-in-exile, officially known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.

Palmiry massacre

Palmiryexecuted in Palmiryexecute 80 persons
Several thousands were executed outside Warsaw, in the Kampinos forest near Palmiry, and inside the city at the Pawiak prison.
Warsaw also headquartered the high command of the Polish Underground State and soon became a stronghold of armed and political resistance against the German occupation.

Home Army

Armia KrajowaPolish Home ArmyAK
Through the Directorate of Civil Resistance (1941–1943) the civil arm was also involved in lesser acts of resistance, such as minor sabotage, although in 1943 this department was merged with the Directorate of Covert Resistance, forming the Directorate of Underground Resistance, subordinate to Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa).
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK; ) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.

Volksliste

Deutsche VolkslisteGerman Nationality ListDeutsche Volksliste
The German People's List (Deutsche Volksliste) classified the willing Polish citizens into four groups of people with ethnic Germanic heritage.
From the beginning of the German occupation of Poland, a number of categorisation schemes were developed at the local level, leading to confusion.

Minor sabotage

small sabotageminor-sabotage
Through the Directorate of Civil Resistance (1941–1943) the civil arm was also involved in lesser acts of resistance, such as minor sabotage, although in 1943 this department was merged with the Directorate of Covert Resistance, forming the Directorate of Underground Resistance, subordinate to Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa).
A minor sabotage (aka little sabotage or small sabotage; mały sabotaż) during World War II in Nazi-occupied Poland (1939–45) was any underground resistance operation that involved a disruptive but relatively minor and non-violent form of defiance, such as the painting of graffiti, the manufacture of fake documents, the disrupting of German propaganda campaigns, and the like.

Einsatzgruppen

EinsatzgruppeEinsatzgruppe AEinsatzgruppe B
Already during the 1939 German invasion, dedicated units of SS and police (the Einsatzgruppen) were tasked with arresting or outright killing of those resisting the Germans.
Together, the Wehrmacht and the Einsatzgruppen also drove tens of thousands of Jews eastward into Soviet-controlled territory.

Polish Workers' Party

Polish Workers PartyPPRPolish Communist Party
There was also the People's Army (Polish Armia Ludowa or AL), backed by the Soviet Union and controlled by the Polish Workers' Party (Polish Polska Partia Robotnicza or PPR), though significantly less numerous than the Home Army.
Arriving from the Soviet Union, a group of Polish communists was parachuted in occupied Poland in December 1941.

Lebensraum

living spaceAltreichacquisition of territory
From the beginning, the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany was intended as fulfilment of the future plan of the German Reich described by Adolf Hitler in his book Mein Kampf as Lebensraum ("living space") for the Germans in Central and Eastern Europe.
In autumn 1939, Nazi Germany's implementation of Lebensraum policy began with the Occupation of Poland (1939-1945); in October 1939, Heinrich Himmler became the Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Nationhood tasked with returning all ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) to the Reich; preventing harmful foreign influences upon the German people; and to create new settlement areas (especially for returning Volksdeutsche).