The oculus at the top of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome
The Ancient Roman oculus of the Pantheon (Rome, Italy)
Islamic oculus opening into a cupola in the Hasht Behesht (Isfahan, Iran)
Romanesque oculus of the Église Sainte-Anne de Gassicourt (Mantes-la-Jolie, France)
Gothic oculus in the Laon Cathedral (Laon, France)
Renaissance oculus of the Florence Cathedral (Florence, Italy)
Baroque oculus in a dome of the Ravenna Cathedral (Ravenna, Italy)
Rococo oculus in the Parc de Bagatelle (Paris)
Louis XVI round window of the Petit Trianon (Versailles, France), with a festoon-derived ornament at the top
Gothic Revival oculus of the Hannoversche Bank - Haus III on Georgstraße (Hannover, Germany)
19th century Eclectic Classicist oculus of the Opéra-Théâtre de Clermont-Ferrand (Clermont-Ferrand, France)
Beaux-Arts dormer oculus of the Building of Préfecture de Police de Paris (île de la Cité)
Art Nouveau oculus of the Hôtel Élysée Palace (Paris)
Art Deco oculus above a door in Angers (France)

Circular opening in the center of a dome or in a wall.

- Oculus

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Light-permitting structure or window, usually made of transparent or translucent glass, that forms all or part of the roof space of a building for daylighting and ventilation purposes.

Skylight in the rotunda of Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil in Rio de Janeiro.
Oculus of the Pantheon, Rome, an open skylight.
Skylight in the vault in the Chapel of the Constable of the Burgos Cathedral, a glazed closed skylight from the 15th century
alt=A venting skylight powered by an onboard solar panel operated by a remote control to vent warm air from inside.|thumb|upright|Solar-powered venting skylight in Southern California.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://ocskylights.com/skylight-guide/|title=Skylight Guide|date=2019-07-24|website=Orange County Skylights|language=en-US|access-date=2019-08-18}}</ref>
thumb|The skylight of Münster's shopping mall "Arkaden".
thumb|Fixed unit skylight, roof view.
thumb|Fixed unit skylights, interior view.
A large (20' x 20') steel and glass retractable skylight, seen from the roof. Note the steel tracks that the skylight rolls on, to retract.
The same retractable skylight, seen from the interior. This is a bi-parting skylight, meaning that it parts in the middle to open.
This ridge skylight wraps over the highest point of the roof - the ridgeline.
This is that same skylight, from the inside. Steel allows large spans, without a grid of supporting tubes and cables.
Active daylighting uses a tubular daylight device—TDD
thumb|TDD skylight on the roof terrace of Liverpool Central Library

Open skylights were used in Ancient Roman architecture, such as the oculus of the Pantheon.

Pantheon, Rome

Former Roman temple and since 609 AD, a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD).

The tomb of Raphael
The interior of the Pantheon
Facade of the Pantheon
Floor plan of the Pantheon from Georg Dehio/Gustav von Bezold: Kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes. Stuttgart: Verlag der Cotta'schen Buchhandlung 1887–1901.
The Pantheon dome. The coffered dome has a central oculus as the main source of natural light.
View of the Pantheon in Rome, including the concrete dome
An 1836 view of the Pantheon by Jakob Alt, showing twin bell towers, in place from early 17th to late 19th centuries.
The interior of the Pantheon in the 18th century, painted by Giovanni Paolo Panini.
The portico
Cross-section of the Pantheon showing how a 43.3-metre diameter sphere fits under its dome.
Beam in the dome of the Pantheon
Low Memorial Library at Columbia University, designed by Charles Follen McKim
The Rotunda designed by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia
Pantheon during a cloudy day
The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016
South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006
The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum
The Pantheon by night
Pantheon 2013
Sideways view across portico
Portico roof from below
Dome by night
Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country"

A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky.


Relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.

White marble cupolas cap minarets at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan
Cupolas on the towers of Montefiascone Cathedral, Italy.
Interior of cupola ceiling in the old Synagogue of Győr, Hungary.
Ribbed cupola crowns the minaret of the Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan, Tunisia.
Inside of Armenian Orthodox church cupola in Lviv, Ukraine.
Cupolas were also used on some old barns for ventilation.
View from the interior of the Cupola module on the International Space Station.
Trompe-l'œil painting of a cupola in a church in Northern Italy (Brivio)
A cupola-style caboose with an "angel seat" above

The cupola evolved during the Renaissance from the older oculus.

Villa Capra "La Rotonda"

Renaissance villa just outside Vicenza in northern Italy designed by Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.

Palladio's plan of Villa La Rotonda in I quattro libri dell'architettura, 1570
Interior of the rotonda
The cupola
The "House of Palestine" and owner Munib al-Masri in Nabulus.
Shaded view
Service corridor leading up to building facade
carved marble fireplace mantel over a fireplace
Open pediment over doorway
Ornamental moldings and fresco painting
Palladio: I quattro libri
Palladio: I quattro libri

Palladio had intended it to be covered by a high semi-circular dome but Scamozzi designed a lower dome with an oculus (intended to be open to the sky) inspired by the Pantheon in Rome.

Florence Cathedral

Cathedral of Florence, Italy (Duomo di Firenze).

Brunelleschi's Dome, the nave, and Giotto's Campanile of the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore as seen from Michelangelo Hill
The Duomo viewed from the heights of Piazzale Michelangelo
The Duomo, as if completed, in a fresco by Andrea di Bonaiuto, painted in the 1360s, before the commencement of the dome
The Duomo and Baptistery of St. John from Piazza del Duomo
Plan of the church with various extension phases
Dome seen from the Giotto's Campanile
Interior of the dome
Baptistery of St. John next to the cathedral
Exterior of the Cathedral
Cupola of the Dome
Model of the original medieval façade in the museum of the cathedral
Modern façade built in the 19th century
Façade of the cathedral
Main portal by Augusto Passaglia
Statue of Saint Reparata, to whom the previous cathedral was dedicated, in the main portal
Interior of the cathedral
Huge clock decorated by Paolo Uccello
Dante and the Divine Comedy
Trompe-l'œil of Niccolò da Tolentino.
The Last Judgement by Vasari and Zuccari (from directly underneath)
The Last Judgement by Vasari and Zuccari
Detail of The Last Judgement by Vasari and Zuccari
Tomb of Antonio d'Orso by Tino da Camaino
Tomb of Filippo Brunelleschi.
Donatello first version of David (1408–1409). Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Height 191 cm.
Possible Statue of "Isaiah" by Nanni di Banco
Donatello's colossal seated figure of Saint John the Evangelist. 1409-1411
A Fiberglass replica of Michaelangelo's David statue [seen from the north]. This was the original placement planned for the statue.
Observation of the solstice on 21 June 2012

The development of the Type “A” cracks means that the dome now permanently behaves as four drifting half-arches linked below the upper oculus.

Andrea Palladio

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza
One of the first works by Palladio, Villa Godi (begun 1537)
Hall of the Muses of the Villa Godi (1537–1542)
Villa Piovene (1539)
Villa Pisani, Bagnolo (1542)
Palazzo Thiene (1542–1558), (begun by Giulio Romano, revised and completed by Palladio)
Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza
Ground floor and entrance stairway of the Basilica Palladiana
Upper level loggia of the Basilica Palladiana
Palazzo Chiericati (1550) in Vicenza
Palazzo del Capitaniato (1565–1572)
The front page of I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1642 edition)
Villa Cornaro (begun 1553) combined rustic living and an imposing space for formal entertaining
The Hall of the Four Columns
Plan of the Villa Cornaro
The Villa Barbaro in Maser (begun 1557)
The Nymphaeum of the Villa Barbaro
Detail of the Hall of Olympus, with frescoes by Paolo Veronese
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" (begun 1566)
Palladio's plan of the Villa in I quattro libri dell'architettura, 1570
North facade of Villa Foscari, facing the Brenta Canal
Interior decoration of grotesques on salon ceiling of Villa Foscari
South facade of Villa Foscari, with the large windows that illuminate the main salon
Nave of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1565)
Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Interior of Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Plan by Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi
Facade of the Tempietto Barbaro
Section of the Tempietto Barbaro, drawn by Scamozzi (1783)
Stage with scenery designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi, who completed the theatre after the death of Palladio
Stage and seating of his last work, the Teatro Olimpico (1584)
House of the Director of the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux (1775)
La Rotonde customs barrier, Parc Monceau, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Palladian garden structure at Steinhöfel by David Gilly (1798)
The Queen's House, Greenwich by Inigo Jones (1616–1635)
Chiswick House by Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and William Kent (completed 1729)
Wilton House south front by Inigo Jones (1650)
Palladio Bridge at Wilton House (1736–37)
Stourhead House by Colen Campbell (1721–24), inspired by Villa Capra
Harvard Hall at Harvard University by Thomas Dawes (1766)
Monticello, residence of Thomas Jefferson (1772)
Winning design for the first United States Capitol by Thomas Thornton (1793)
Clarity and harmony. Villa Badoer (1556–1563), an early use by Palladio of the elements of a Roman temple
The Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, (begun 1546) with arched Palladian window and round oculi to the loggia.
A variation of the Palladian or Venetian window, with round oculi, at Villa Pojana (1548–49)
Late Palladio style, Mannerist decoration on the facade of the Palazzo del Capitanio (1565–1572)
Palazzo Strozzi courtyard
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" outside Vicenza
San Francesco della Vigna in Venice
Villa Porto
Villa Valmarana
Villa Emo
Villa Saraceno
Villa Cornaro
Palazzo del Capitaniato, Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, Vicenza

It consists of an arched window flanked by two smaller square windows, divided by two columns or pilasters and often topped by a small entablature and by a small circular window or hole, called an oculus.

Renaissance architecture

European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto
Palladio's engraving of Bramante's Tempietto
Plan of Bramante's Tempietto in Montorio
The Piazza del Campidoglio
The Romanesque Florence Baptistery was the object of Brunelleschi's studies of perspective
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace.
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles. Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Posthumous portrait by Pontormo.
The Church of the Certosa di Pavia, Lombardy
Scuola Grande di San Marco, Venice
Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Facade of Sant'Agostino, Rome, built in 1483 by Giacomo di Pietrasanta
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
The dome of Florence Cathedral (the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore)
The church of San Lorenzo
Palazzo Medici Riccardi by Michelozzo. Florence, 1444
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, the façade
Façade of Santa Maria Novella, 1456–70
The crossing of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan (1490)
picture above
The Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo.
Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence, by Raphael
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.
Palazzo Te, Mantua
St Peter's Basilica
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library
Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Keystone with a profile of a man, Palazzo Giusti, Verona, Italy
The House of the Blackheads in Riga, Latvia
Royal Summer Palace in Prague is considered the purest Renaissance architecture outside of Italy.
Cathedral of St James, Šibenik
English Renaissance: Hardwick Hall (1590–1597).
French Renaissance: Château de Chambord (1519–39)
Juleum in Helmstedt, Germany (example of Weser Renaissance)
Antwerp City Hall (finished in 1564)
Courtyard of Wawel Castle exemplifies first period of Polish Renaissance
Cloister of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal, (1557–1591), Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.
Nordic Renaissance: Frederiksborg Palace (1602–20)
The Escorial (1563–1584), Madrid
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO WHS.
The large Basilica of San Francisco in Quito, built between 1535 and 1650, a UNESCO World Heritage Site city.

There was a large ocular window in the end of the nave which had to be taken into account.

Palma de Mallorca

Capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.

Sant Nicolau Church
Santa Eulalia church, in which James II of Majorca was crowned on 12 September 1276.
Bellver Castle, was the first circle castle in Europe.
Royal Palace of La Almudaina, built in 1309 over an earlier castle.
Palma's Silk Exchange, a masterpiece of the Gothic architecture in Majorca. Built between 1420 and 1452.
The tower of Porto Pí
City council of Palma
Palma in Christmas
Palma pictured from the International Space Station
Population of Palma (1900-2006)
La Seu, Palma Cathedral, built between 1229 and 1346.
Street in Palma's Old City
El Pueblo Español
The ancient mills of El Jonquet
Colom street (which connects the city hall building with the Plaza Mayor)
Estadi de Son Moix
Platja de Palma in El Arenal
Marina at night
Correfocs in Palma

The bathroom has a cupola with five oculi which let in dazzling light.

Chartres Cathedral

Roman Catholic church in Chartres, France, about 80 km southwest of Paris, and is the seat of the Bishop of Chartres.

Chartres Cathedral by night
The Coronation of Henry IV of France in the Cathedral on 27 February 1594
The 1836 fire of Chartres Cathedral by François-Alexandre Pernot (1837)
Inside the roof-space, the charpente de fer, built c. 1840
Window of the Vendôme Chapel, c.1415
Pythagoras on one of the archivolts over the right door of the west portal at Chartres
Chartres floorplan (1856) by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc (1814–1879)
The elevation of the nave, showing the gallery on the ground level; the narrow triforium; and, on top, the windows of the clerestory
Flying buttresses supporting the upper walls and counterbalancing the outward thrust of the vaulted ceiling, allowing thin walls and greater space for windows
Flying buttresses seen from above
The vaults of the roof, connected by stone ribs to the pillars below, combined with the flying buttresses outside make possible thinner walls, and the great height and large windows of the Cathedral
The Flamboyant Gothic North Tower (finished 1513) (left) and older South Tower (1144–1150) (right)
Detail of the South Tower
Detail of the Flamboyant Gothic North Tower
The clock pavilion, with a 24-hour astronomical clock
Central tympanum of the Royal portal. Christ seated on a throne, surrounded by the symbols of the Evangelists; a winged man for St. Matthew, a lion for St. Mark; a bull for St. Luke; and an eagle for St. John.
Jambs of the center doorway of the Royal Portal, with statues of the men and women of the Old Testament
West portal, tympanum of left door. It depicts Christ on a cloud, supported by two angels, above a row of figures representing the labours of the months and signs of the Zodiac<ref>Houvet (2019) pg. 33</ref>
Saint Anne holding the infant Virgin Mary on the trumeau of the central portal of the north transept
The tympanum over the center portal of the north transept. On the lintel are the Dormition (Death) and Assumption of the Virgin. Above is the Coronation of the Virgin: Mary, in her living body, will rule the heavens alongside her Son Christ.
New Testament figures Simeon, John the Baptist, and Saint Peter, with his keys
Unidentified characters from the Old Testament
Christian Martyrs framing the South Portal (13th century); including the "Perfect Knight" Roland,(far left) and Saint George (second from right)
Central doorway of the South Portal, with column statue of Christ. His feet rest on a lion and a dragon.
The Apostles
Angel with a sundial on south facade
Gargoyle on the North Tower, serving as a rain spout
Detail of the South Tower, with statuary of Chimeras
Detail on the South Portal depicting angels looking down upon hell
Monsters and devils tempting Christians on the south portal
Notre Dame de Piliers statue and chapel off the nave
Fragment of a reputed veil of Virgin Mary, displayed in the Chapel of the Martyrs
Lancet windows under the west rose window; the Jesse Window or genealogy of Christ (right); Life of Christ (center), and the Passion of Christ (left)
 Notre-Dame de la Belle-Verrière » or the Blue Virgin (c.1180 and 1225)
Detail of the  Notre-Dame de la Belle-Verrière
The west rose window {{circa|1215}}
North transept rose window, {{circa|1235}}
South transept rose window, {{circa|1221–1230}}
Scene from the Good Samaritan window; Christ tells the Good Samaritan parable to the Pharisees
The Good Samaritan window
Shoemakers at work in the Good Samaritan window
The Well of the Saints Forts, in the Saint Fulbert Crypt
12th century fresco in the Saint Lubin Crypt, showing the Virgin Mary on her throne of wisdom, with the Three Kings to her right and Savinien and Potenien to her left
The altar (18th century) by Charles-Antoine Bridan
Sculpture on the choir screen (16th–18th century)
Plan of the labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral
Walking the labyrinth at Chartres Cathedral
Chapel of Saint Piatus of Tournai, added in 1326 to the east of the apse
Labyrinth in the gardens of the bishop
Chapel of Saint Piatus of Tournai (left), apse of the cathedral and the old bishop's residence
Early stages of cleaning and restoring the Choir of Chartres Cathedral (2009–2019)
Restoration in 2019; the cleaned and painted nave contrasts with the side aisle, darkened with age and soot

A central oculus showing Christ as the Judge is surrounded by an inner ring of twelve paired roundels containing angels and the Elders of the Apocalypse and an outer ring of 12 roundels showing the dead emerging from their tombs and the angels blowing trumpets to summon them to judgment.

Doric Greek

Group of Ancient Greek dialects; its varieties are divided into the Doric proper and Northwest Doric subgroups.

Laconia in Greece
Argolis in Greece
Corinthia in Greece
Political situation in the Greek world around the time at which the Northwest Doric koina arose

ὄπτιλλος optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)