Odisha

OrissaKalingaOdisha StateState of OdishaOdisha, IndiaOrissa StateOddaOdiaOdisaState of Orissa
Odisha (, ; ଓଡ଼ିଶା, ; formerly known as Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India.wikipedia
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West Bengal

BengalWestWB
Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south.
It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam.

Jharkhand

Jharkhand StateHussainabadJH
Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south.
The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east.

Balasore

BaleswarBaleshwarBalasore (Baleshwar Town)
Odisha has 485 km of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam.
Balasore or Baleshwar is a city in the state of Odisha, about 194 km north of the state capital Bhubaneswar, in eastern India.

Odia language

OdiaOriyaOdiya
Odia is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 60 million according to the 2016 Census.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ; formerly romanized as Oriya) is a Classical Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian state of Odisha.

Andhra Pradesh

APAndhraAndhra Pradesh, India
Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, and to the east lies the Bay of Bengal.

Chhattisgarh

ChattishgarhChhattisgarh StateCG
Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south.
Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in the south, Odisha in the southeast.

Cuttack

KatakaRAF CuttackKatak
Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948.
Cuttack is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha.

Bhubaneswar

BhubaneshwarBhubaneswar (The Temple City of India)Bhubaneswar Athletic Association
Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha.

Puri

Jagannatha PuriJagannathJagannath Puri
The inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri (c. 1135), and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple (c. 1250).
Puri is a city and a Municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India.

Ganjam

Ganjam beachGanjam districtGanjam N.A.C.
Odisha has 485 km of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam.
Ganjam is a town and a notified area council in Ganjam district in the state of Odisha, India.

Ashoka

AsokaAśokaEmperor Ashoka
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.
Ashoka waged a destructive war against the state of Kalinga (modern Odisha), which he conquered in about 260 BCE.

Kalinga (historical region)

KalingaKalinga KingdomKalingas
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.
The core territory of Kalinga now encompasses a large part of Odisha and northern part of Andhra Pradesh.

Kharavela

KhārabēḷaKharavela EmpireMahameghavahana Kharavela
By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, who was possibly a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent.
Kharavela was a king of Kalinga in present-day Odisha, India.

Eastern Ganga dynasty

Ganga dynastyEastern GangasGanga
They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty.
The Eastern Ganga dynasty was a medieval Indian dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from the 11th century to the early 15th century.

Jagannath Temple, Puri

Jagannath TempleJagannath PuriJagannatha Temple
Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri (c. 1135), and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple (c. 1250).
The Shree Jagannath Temple (Odia: ଶ୍ରୀ ଜଗନ୍ନାଥ ମନ୍ଦିର) of Puri is an important Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Jagannath, a form of lord Vishnu, located on the eastern coast of India, at Puri in the state of Odisha.

Gajapati Kingdom

GajapatiGajapatisGajapati King
The inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya.
The Gajapatis were a medieval Hindu dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Odradesh(historical region ruled by samrat Odra) (most of present-day Odisha and Northern coastal Andhra) from 1434 to 1541 CE. Under Kapilendra Deva, Gajapatis became an empire stretching from the lower Ganga in the north to the Kaveri in the south.

Alivardi Khan

Mirza Muhammad AliMuhammad Alivardi Khan BahadurNawab Alibardi Khan
In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the Maratha Empire.
His two sons Muhammad Ali and Mirza Ahmed managed to find employment under the Subahdar (Provincial governor) of Orissa, Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.

Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves

UdayagiriKhandagiri and UdayagiriKhandagiri and Udaygiri
He also built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill.
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, formerly called Kataka Caves or Cuttack caves, are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneswar in Odisha, India.

Madras Presidency

MadrasMadras GovernmentGovernment of Madras
The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually.
At its greatest extent, the presidency included most of southern India, including the whole of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, and parts of Odisha, Kerala, Karnataka and the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Narasingha Deva I

Narasimha Deva ILangula Gajapathi RajuLangula Narasimhadeva
Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri (c. 1135), and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple (c. 1250).
'Langula' Narasingha Deva I (Odia: ପ୍ରଥମ ଲାଙ୍ଗୂଳା ନରସିଂହ ଦେବ) was a powerful monarch and warrior of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty of early medieval Odisha who reigned c.

Somavamshi dynasty

SomavamsiSomavamshiSomavanshi
Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region.
The Somavamshi (IAST: Somavaṃśī) (English: Lunar dynasty) or Keshari (IAST: Keśarī) dynasty ruled parts of present-day Odisha in eastern India between the 9th and the 12th centuries.

Kalinga War

KalingaKalinga conquestbattle of
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.
262 BCE) was fought in what is now India between the Maurya Empire under Ashoka and the state of Kalinga, an independent feudal kingdom located on the east coast, in the present-day state of Odisha and north of Andhra Pradesh.

Maurya Empire

MauryanMauryaMauryas
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.
The Empire was expanded into India's central with boundary into southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara, but it excluded Kalinga (modern Odisha), until it was conquered by Ashoka.

Northern Circars

Circar districtsCircarsconsiderable coastline
The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually.
It consisted of a narrow slip of territory lying along the western side of the Bay of Bengal from 15° 40′ to 20° 17′ north latitude, in the present-day Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.

Rushikulya River

river RushikulyaRushikulya
It extends from the Subarnarekha River in the north to the Rushikulya river in the south.
The Rushikulya River is one of the major rivers in the state of Odisha and covers entire catchment area in the districts of Kandhamal and Ganjam district of Odisha.