Odyssey

The OdysseyHomer's OdysseyHomer's ''OdysseyOddyseypoeman epic journeyCyclopeiaeponymous poemhis journey homeHomeric association
The Odyssey ( Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.wikipedia
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Homer

HomericHomeric epicsHomeric poems
The Odyssey ( Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Homer (, Hómēros) is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

Iliad

The IliadIlliadIlias
It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other Homeric epic. The Odyssey begins after the end of the ten-year Trojan War (the subject of the Iliad), and Odysseus has still not returned home from the war because he angered the god Poseidon.
The Iliad is paired with something of a sequel, the Odyssey, also attributed to Homer.

Odysseus

UlyssesUlisseKing of Ithaca
The poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus (known as Ulysses in Roman myths), king of Ithaca, and his journey home after the fall of Troy.
Odysseus (, Ὀdysseús ), also known by the Latin variant Ulysses, is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.

Trojan War

Fall of TroySiege of TroyTroy
It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. The Odyssey begins after the end of the ten-year Trojan War (the subject of the Iliad), and Odysseus has still not returned home from the war because he angered the god Poseidon.
The core of the Iliad (Books II – XXIII) describes a period of four days and two nights in the tenth year of the decade-long siege of Troy; the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the war's heroes.

Penelope

a figure of mythologyhis wifePenelopē
In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres (Greek: Μνηστῆρες) or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage.
In Homer's Odyssey, Penelope (Πηνελόπεια, Pēnelópeia, or Πηνελόπη, Pēnelópē) is the wife of Odysseus, who is known for her fidelity to Odysseus while he was absent, despite having many suitors.

Troy

TrojanTrojansIlium
The poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus (known as Ulysses in Roman myths), king of Ithaca, and his journey home after the fall of Troy.
Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον (Ilion) formerly began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον (Wilion); this is also supported by the Hittite name for what is thought to be the same city, Wilusa.

Homer's Ithaca

IthacaHomeric IthacaItaka
The poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus (known as Ulysses in Roman myths), king of Ithaca, and his journey home after the fall of Troy.
The specific location of the island, as it was described in Homer's Odyssey, is a matter for debate.

Western canon

canoncanonicalCanons of Elizabethan poetry
The Odyssey is fundamental to the modern Western canon; it is the second-oldest extant work of Western literature, while the Iliad is the oldest.

Telemachus

TelemachosTelemacoAdventures of Telemachus
In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres (Greek: Μνηστῆρες) or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage.
Telemachus (Ancient Greek: Τηλέμαχος Tēlemakhos, literally "far-fighter") is a figure in Greek mythology, the son of Odysseus and Penelope, and a central character in Homer's Odyssey.

Ithaca

IthakiIthakaIthaca, Greece
It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War.
Modern Ithaca is generally identified with Homer's Ithaca, the home of Odysseus, whose delayed return to the island is the plot of the classical Greek tale the Odyssey.

Homeric Greek

HomericHomeric dialectEpic Greek
The Odyssey continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world.
Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns.

Suitors of Penelope

suitorsPenelope's suitorsProci
In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres (Greek: Μνηστῆρες) or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage.
In Greek mythology, the suitors of Penelope (also known as the Proci) are one of the main subjects of Homer's Odyssey.

Poseidon

NeptuneAegaeusNeptune Equester
The Odyssey begins after the end of the ten-year Trojan War (the subject of the Iliad), and Odysseus has still not returned home from the war because he angered the god Poseidon. Odysseus' protectress, the goddess Athena, requests to Zeus, king of the gods, to finally allow Odysseus to return home when Odysseus' enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus to accept a sacrifice in Ethiopia.
In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War and in the Odyssey, during the sea-voyage from Troy back home to Ithaca, the Greek hero Odysseus provokes Poseidon's fury by blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, resulting in Poseidon punishing him with storms, the complete loss of his ship and companions, and a ten-year delay.

Rhapsode

rhapsodistrhapsodesrhapsodic
Many scholars believe the original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos (epic poet/singer), perhaps a rhapsode (professional performer), and was more likely intended to be heard than read.
Rhapsodes notably performed the epics of Homer (Iliad and Odyssey) but also the wisdom and catalogue poetry of Hesiod and the satires of Archilochus and others.

Dactylic hexameter

hexameterhexametersdactylic hexameters
The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter.
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.

Cyclic Poets

Greek poetGreek epic poetCycle
In one source, the Telegony was said to have been stolen from Musaeus of Athens by either Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene (see Cyclic poets).
In the classical period, surviving early epic poems were ascribed to these authors, just as the Iliad and Odyssey were ascribed to Homer.

Epic poetry

epic poemepicepics
The Odyssey ( Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
The longest epic written is the ancient Indian Mahabharata, which consists of 100,000 ślokas or over 200,000 verse lines (each shloka is a couplet), as well as long prose passages, so that at ~1.8 million words it is roughly four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa, and roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined.

Aoidos

Many scholars believe the original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos (epic poet/singer), perhaps a rhapsode (professional performer), and was more likely intended to be heard than read.
In modern Homeric scholarship is used by some as the technical term for a skilled oral epic poet in the tradition to which the Iliad and Odyssey are believed to belong (compare rhapsode).

Athena

Pallas AthenaPallasPallas Athene
Odysseus' protectress, the goddess Athena, requests to Zeus, king of the gods, to finally allow Odysseus to return home when Odysseus' enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus to accept a sacrifice in Ethiopia.
She plays an active role in the Iliad, in which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey, she is the divine counselor to Odysseus.

Odyssean gods

gods
Odysseus' protectress, the goddess Athena, requests to Zeus, king of the gods, to finally allow Odysseus to return home when Odysseus' enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus to accept a sacrifice in Ethiopia.
The Odyssean gods are the ancient Greek gods referenced in Homer's Odyssey.

Mentor (Odyssey)

MentorMentor (''Odyssey'')
Accompanied by Athena (now disguised as Mentor), he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, who resided in Pylos after the war.
In the Odyssey, Mentor (Greek: Μέντωρ, Méntōr; gen.: Μέντορος) was the son of Alcimus.

Ionic Greek

IonicIonic dialectIonian
The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter.
The works of Homer (The Iliad, The Odyssey, and the Homeric Hymns) and of Hesiod were written in a literary dialect called Homeric Greek or Epic Greek, which largely comprises Old Ionic, with some borrowings from the neighboring Aeolic dialect to the north.

Nestor (mythology)

NestorPerseus (son of Nestor)King Nestor
Accompanied by Athena (now disguised as Mentor), he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, who resided in Pylos after the war.
Nestor of Gerenia (, Nestōr Gerēnios) was the legendary wise King of Pylos described in Homer's Odyssey.

Telegony

Polyxenos
The Odyssey has a lost sequel, the Telegony, which was not attributed to Homer.
The story of the Telegony comes chronologically after that of the Odyssey and is the final episode in the Epic Cycle.

Ancient Greek dialects

Greek dialectsancient Greek dialectdialect
The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter.
Homeric Greek is used in the first epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, and the Homeric Hymns, traditionally attributed to Homer and written in dactylic hexameter.