Ofcom

Radio AuthorityOffice of CommunicationsOffice of Communications (Ofcom)Broadcasting Standards CommissionBroadcasting Standards CouncilThe Radio AuthorityUK Office of Communications (Ofcom)British Ofcombroadcasting codesBroadcasting Complaints Commission
The Office of Communications (Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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Communications Act 2003

Communications ActCommunications BillCommunications Act, 2003
The regulator was initially established by the Office of Communications Act 2002 and received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003.
It consolidated the telecommunication and broadcasting regulators in the UK, introducing the Office of Communications (Ofcom) as the new industry regulator.

ATVOD

On 1 January 2016, the regulation of video on demand was transferred to Ofcom from ATVOD, the Authority for Television on Demand.
The Authority for Television on Demand (ATVOD) was an industry body designated by Ofcom as the "co-regulator" of television on demand (VOD) in the UK from 2010 until 2015.

BBC Trust

TrustCorporationindependent trust
The act also transferred to Ofcom the regulation of the BBC, a duty previously undertaken by the BBC Trust, and updated the Ofcom Electronic Communications Code to make it easier for telecommunications companies to erect and extend mobile masts.
On 12 May 2016, it was announced in the House of Commons that, under the next Royal Charter, the regulatory functions of the BBC Trust were to be transferred to Ofcom.

Digital Economy Act 2017

obsolete'.Digital Economy ActDigital Economy Act (2017)
The Digital Economy Act 2017 extended Ofcom's remit and powers.
Allowing Ofcom, the communications sector's regulator, to financially penalise communications providers for failing to comply with licence commitments.

Ed Richards (chief executive)

Ed Richards
On the same day Ed Richards, the then chief executive of Ofcom, replied to Simon Hughes MP, Don Foster MP and Tim Farron MP following a letter which they had written to him on 8 July concerning News Corporation's shareholding in BSkyB. Sharon White became Ofcom's chief executive in 2015, replacing Ed Richards.
Edward Charles Richards (born 29 August 1965) was the Chief Executive of Ofcom, the independent regulator for the communications industry in the United Kingdom.

BBC

British Broadcasting Corporationthe BBCBBC Music
The act also transferred to Ofcom the regulation of the BBC, a duty previously undertaken by the BBC Trust, and updated the Ofcom Electronic Communications Code to make it easier for telecommunications companies to erect and extend mobile masts.
The BBC is a statutory corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen from April 2017 by the BBC Board and regulated by Ofcom.

UK Calling

Under the new legislation, which was promoted by an information campaign entitled UK Calling, call charges must be clearly stated on all materials that advertise a service number.
UK Calling is the name given to the legislation introduced by Ofcom in July 2015 to make the cost of calling UK service numbers clearer for everyone.

Stephen Carter, Baron Carter of Barnes

Stephen CarterLord CarterLord Carter of Barnes
The first chief executive (2003–2007) was Stephen Carter, Baron Carter of Barnes, formerly a senior executive of JWT UK and NTL and subsequently a Minister for Communications, Technology and Broadcasting.
Starting his career as CEO of J Walter Thompson UK & Ireland and COO of NTL UK & Ireland (now Virgin Media), in 2003 Carter became the founding CEO of Ofcom (Office of Communications) in the United Kingdom.

Independent Television Commission

ITCIndependent Broadcasting Authority/Independent Television CommissionIndependent Television Commission,
the Independent Television Commission
In the early 2000s, the British government, in a White Paper, declared its intention to merge the ITC with the Radio Authority, Office of Telecommunications, and Radiocommunications Agency.

R18 (British Board of Film Classification)

R18 certificateR18R18-rated
The Broadcasting Code requires that content inappropriate for children should not be broadcast between the hours of 5:30a.m. and 9:00p.m. Premium-rate film services may broadcast content equivalent to a BBFC 15 certificate at any time of day provided a PIN-protected system is in place to restrict access to those authorised to view it. The broadcasting of pornography with a BBFC R18 certificate is not permitted.
Ofcom also prohibit the transmission of R18 material as part of a television broadcast, although these restrictions do not apply to hotel television systems which are not regulated by Ofcom.

Patricia Hodgson

Dame Patricia HodgsonMs Patricia Anne Hodgson
Dame Patricia Hodgson DBE was appointed as chairman of Ofcom for a three-year term from April 2014.
She is a board member of the Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation having served as Chairman of Ofcom from 2014 to 2017, having succeeded Dame Colette Bowe in April 2014, She is also a trustee of the Policy Exchange and is Chair of the School Teachers' Review Body.

Sharon White (civil servant)

Sharon White
Sharon White became Ofcom's chief executive in 2015, replacing Ed Richards.
She has been the chief executive of the British media regulator Ofcom since March 2015.

Communications Consumer Panel

Communications Consumer Panel (CCP)
Consisting of eight independent experts, the Panel carries out research, provides advice and encourages Ofcom, the UK Government, the European Union, communications industry and others to look at issues through the eyes of consumers, citizens and small businesses.

Postal Services Commission

On 1 October 2011, Ofcom took over responsibility for regulating the postal services industry from the Postal Services Commission (Postcomm).
Postcomm was merged into the communications regulator Ofcom on 1 October 2011.

Postal Services Act 2011

Following the Postal Services Act 2011 regulatory responsibility for postal services transferred to Ofcom on 1 October 2011, with its primary duty to maintain the UK's six-day-a-week universal postal service.
It allowed for the transfer of regulatory responsibility from Postcomm to the communications regulator Ofcom.

Sky UK

SkySky DigitalSky TV
In July 2011, in the wake of the News International phone hacking scandal, Ofcom came under pressure to launch an inquiry into whether the parent company of News International, News Corporation, was still the "fit and proper" owner of a controlling stake in the satellite broadcasting company British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB).
Sky has no veto over the presence of channels on their EPG, with open access being an enforced part of their operating licence from Ofcom.

Virgin Media

NTLVirginVirgin Media Music Awards
The first chief executive (2003–2007) was Stephen Carter, Baron Carter of Barnes, formerly a senior executive of JWT UK and NTL and subsequently a Minister for Communications, Technology and Broadcasting.
BSkyB effectively blocked the merger on 17 November 2006 by controversially buying a 17.9% stake in ITV plc, a move that attracted anger from NTL shareholder Richard Branson, and an investigation from media and telecoms regulator Ofcom.

Community radio in the United Kingdom

community radiocommunity radio stationcommunity
Community Radio Fund Panel
The idea for this new level of radio broadcasting was piloted by the regulator at the time, the Radio Authority in 2002 with the licensing of 15 so-called Access Radio stations for a trial period of one year to test the feasibility of such stations.

Public broadcasting

public radiopublic televisionpublic
Ofcom were given powers concerning the minimum broadband speed provided by Internet service providers, the ability to financially penalise communications providers for failing to comply with licence commitments and the power to require public service broadcasters to include a minimum quantity of children's programming made in the United Kingdom.
There are now 228 stations with FM broadcast licences (licensed by Ofcom).

Oftel

Office of Telecommunications (Oftel)Office of Telecommunications
the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel)
On 29 December 2003 the duties of Oftel were inherited by Ofcom, which was the result of the consolidation of five separate British telecommunications, radio spectrum and broadcasting regulators.

Press TV

Iran's state TV
In May 2011, Ofcom ruled that Press TV, an Iranian English-language satellite channel, was responsible for a serious breach of UK broadcasting rules and could face a fine for airing an interview with Maziar Bahari, the Newsweek journalist arrested covering the Iranian presidential election in 2009, that was obtained by force while he was held in a Tehran jail.
Bahari, now a British resident, complained to Ofcom, the regulatory authority for the telecommunication industries in the United Kingdom.

Broadcast license

license to coverlicenselicenses
Broadcast Licensing Committee
While these are FCC and Ofcom terms, respectively, other countries have similar regulations.

Channel 4

Channel FourChannel4.comChannel 4 HD
Upon the release of Ofcom's findings, Press TV claimed that Maziar Bahari was "an MI6 contact person" taking guidance from "The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, protocol No. 7". Press TV called Ofcom's ruling "part of an anti-Iranian campaign," and that "A quick look at senior decision makers at OFCOM demonstrates that the regulator is mostly made up of former Channel 4 and BBC executives, some of whom are well-linked to and influenced by powerful pro-Israeli politicians."
The remit changes periodically, as dictated by various broadcasting and communications acts, and is regulated by the various authorities Channel 4 has been answerable to; originally the IBA, then the ITC and now Ofcom.

Electromagnetic spectrum

spectrumspectrawhite light
Ofcom is responsible for the management, regulation, assignment and licensing of the electromagnetic spectrum in the UK, and licenses portions of it for use in television and radio broadcasts, mobile phone transmissions, private communications networks, wireless devices and so on.
UK frequency allocation table (from Ofcom, which inherited the Radiocommunications Agency's duties, pdf format)

Internet Service Providers Association

ISPAInternet Service Providers' Association of South Africa
ISPA
ISPA's main activity is in making representations on behalf of the industry to Government bodies, such as the Home Office, the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (former DTI) and Ofcom.