Off-pump coronary artery bypass

beating heartoff-pump bypass surgery
Off-pump coronary artery bypass or "beating heart" surgery is a form of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine) as a treatment for coronary heart disease.wikipedia
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Postperfusion syndrome

pumphead syndrome
The medical community believes cardiopulmonary bypass causes a post-operative cognitive decline known as postperfusion syndrome (informally called "pumphead"), but research has shown no long-term difference between on and off pump coronary artery bypass in patients of lower risk.
Subsequent studies have compared "on-pump" CABG to off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB)—essentially establishing controls to compare the incidence of neurocognitive decline in CABG with and without the use of CPB.

Coronary artery bypass surgery

heart bypassbypass surgeryheart bypass surgery
Off-pump coronary artery bypass or "beating heart" surgery is a form of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine) as a treatment for coronary heart disease.
Postperfusion syndrome (pumphead), a transient neurocognitive impairment associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Some research shows the incidence is initially decreased by off-pump coronary artery bypass, but with no difference beyond three months after surgery. A neurocognitive decline over time has been demonstrated in people with coronary artery disease regardless of treatment (OPCAB, conventional CABG or medical management). However, a 2009 research study suggests that longer term (over 5 years) cognitive decline is not caused by CABG but is rather a consequence of vascular disease. Loss of mental function is a complication of bypass surgery in elderly people, and might influence procedure cost benefit considerations. Several factors may contribute to immediate cognitive decline. The heart-lung blood circulation system and the surgery itself release a variety of debris, including bits of blood cells, tubing, and plaques. For example, when surgeons clamp and connect the aorta to tubing, resulting emboli block blood flow and cause mini strokes. Other heart surgery factors related to mental damage may be events of hypoxia, high or low body temperature, abnormal blood pressure, irregular heart rhythms, and fever after surgery.

Cardiothoracic surgery

cardiothoracic surgeoncardiac surgeonthoracic surgery
Cardiac surgeon
Since the 1990s, surgeons have begun to perform "off-pump bypass surgery" – coronary artery bypass surgery without the aforementioned cardiopulmonary bypass.

Cardiopulmonary bypass

heart-lung machineheart-lung machinesheart–lung machine
Off-pump coronary artery bypass or "beating heart" surgery is a form of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine) as a treatment for coronary heart disease.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Off-pump coronary artery bypass or "beating heart" surgery is a form of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine) as a treatment for coronary heart disease.

Percutaneous coronary intervention

coronary angioplastyPCIpercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
This results in a very low risk of stroke, actually less than occurs during percutaneous coronary intervention

Blood transfusion

transfusionblood transfusionstransfusions
In addition to off-pump surgery being associated with the clinical benefits of a reduced risk of stroke or memory problems, patients also typically have a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay, fewer blood transfusions, and fewer unwanted inflammatory/immune response issues.

Learning curve

difficulty curvelearning curvessteep learning curve
The technique has a steep learning curve, but with adequate training and experience, the quality of the anastomoses has been shown to be similar to on-pump results in surgeons with comparable experience

Anastomosis

anastomosesanastomosinganastomose
The technique has a steep learning curve, but with adequate training and experience, the quality of the anastomoses has been shown to be similar to on-pump results in surgeons with comparable experience

Akihito

Emperor AkihitoCrown Prince AkihitoEmperor Akihito of Japan
On February 18, 2012 Amano Atsushi performed a successful off-pump coronary artery bypass operation on Emperor Akihito.

Jose Chacko Periappuram

His other achievements include the first beating heart, awake bypass and total arterial revascularization surgeries in the state.

Cardiac surgery

open heart surgeryheart surgeryopen-heart surgery
In the early 1990s, surgeons began to perform off-pump coronary artery bypass, done without cardiopulmonary bypass.