Official bilingualism in Canada

bilingualofficial bilingualismbilingualismOfficial LanguagesBilingualism in Canadaofficial languages of CanadaExtended Frenchofficially bilingualofficial languageboth official languages
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.wikipedia
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Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
"Official bilingualism" is the term used in Canada to collectively describe the policies, constitutional provisions, and laws that ensure legal equality of English and French in the Parliament and courts of Canada, protect the linguistic rights of English and French-speaking minorities in different provinces, and ensure a level of government services in both languages across Canada.
The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level.

Official Languages Act (Canada)

Official Languages Actofficial languagesOfficial Languages Act of 1969
One of the purposes of the Official Languages Act of 1988 was to remedy this omission.
Although the Official Languages Act is not the only piece of federal language law, it is the legislative keystone of Canada's official bilingualism.

Canada Act 1982

Canada Actpatriationpatriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982
Similarly, all other parts of the Constitution that were enacted by the United Kingdom (with the important exception of the Canada Act 1982) have no official French-language version.
Because of the requirements of official bilingualism, the body of the Canada Act itself is also set out in French in Schedule A to the act, which is declared by s. 3 to have "the same authority in Canada as the English version thereof".

Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism

Laurendeau-Dunton CommissionLaurendeau-Dunton royal commissionLaurendeau-Dunton Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
Canada adopted its first Official Languages Act in 1969, in response to the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.
Prime Minister Pearson's policy statement on bilingualism was strengthened by the Official Languages Act, 1969, making Canada an officially bilingual nation.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.

Charter of the French Language

Bill 101language legislationQuebec Charter of the French Language
In 1977, the Parti Québécois government of René Lévesque introduced the Charter of the French Language (better known as "Bill 101") to promote and preserve the French language in the province, indirectly disputing the federal bilingualism policy.
The Charter was criticised by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who called Bourassa's Bill 22 as a "slap in the face", in his memoirs, as he saw it as contrary to the federal government's initiative to mandate bilingualism.

Constitution Act, 1867

British North America Act of 1867British North America Act, 1867British North America Act
Section 133 of the Constitution Act, 1867 guarantees that both languages may be used in the Parliament of Canada, in its journals and records, and in court proceedings in any court established by the Parliament of Canada.
Although the 1867 Act does not establish English and French as Canada's official languages, it does provide some rights for the users of both languages in respect of some institutions of the federal and Quebec governments.

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the other being French.

Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada

The Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada (APEC) was a group in Canada, which campaigned against the Canadian government's policy of official bilingualism.

Canadians

CanadianCanadian citizensCanada
At least 35% of Canadians speak more than one language.
Canadian government policies such as official bilingualism; publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; outlawing capital punishment; strong efforts to eliminate poverty; strict gun control; the legalizing of same-sex marriage, pregnancy terminations, euthanasia and cannabis are social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values.

Pierre Trudeau

Pierre Elliot TrudeauTrudeauPierre Elliott Trudeau
The Liberal Party sees itself as the party of official bilingualism, as it was a Liberal prime minister, Pierre Trudeau, who enacted the first Official Languages Act in 1969 and who entrenched detailed protections for the two official languages in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982.
Admirers praised what they consider to be the force of Trudeau's intellect and his political acumen, maintaining national unity over the Quebec sovereignty movement, suppressing a Quebec terrorist crisis, fostering a pan-Canadian identity, and in achieving sweeping institutional reform, including the implementation of official bilingualism, patriation of the Constitution, and the establishment of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Bilingual Today, French Tomorrow

Books such as Jock V. Andrew's Bilingual Today, French Tomorrow, advocated either the repeal of the Official Languages Act or an end to the policy of official bilingualism.
It alleged that Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's policy of official bilingualism was a plot to make Canada a unilingually francophone country, by instituting reverse discrimination against anglophone Canadians.

Timeline of official languages policy in Canada

language policy
Because the country contains two major language groups and numerous other linguistic minorities, in Canada official languages policy has always been an important and high-profile area of public policy.

Conservative Party of Canada

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
The Conservative Party of Canada was created in 2003 by the merger of the old Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance.

French Language Services Act

bilingualFrenchservices
For example, under the terms of Ontario's 1986 French Language Services Act, Francophones in 25 designated areas across the province—but not in other parts of the province—are guaranteed access to provincial government services in French.
The Act was controversial with anti-bilingualism advocates such as the Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada, who alleged that it created a special entitlement for francophones at the expense of anglophone residents of the province as the requirement to provide bilingual services was perceived to discriminate against government employees who did not speak French.

Liberal Party of Canada

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
The Liberal Party sees itself as the party of official bilingualism, as it was a Liberal prime minister, Pierre Trudeau, who enacted the first Official Languages Act in 1969 and who entrenched detailed protections for the two official languages in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982.
The Liberal Party under Trudeau promoted official bilingualism and passed the Official Languages Act, which gave French and English languages equal status in Canada.

Multilingualism

bilingualmultilingualpolyglot
Official bilingualism should not be confused with personal bilingualism, which is the capacity of a person to speak two languages.

History of Canada

Canadian historyCanadahistory
From Grades 9 through 12, along with taking the Extended French language course every year, students must complete their mandatory Grade 9 Geography and Grade 10 Canadian History credits in French.
During his long tenure in the office (1968–79, 1980–84), Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau made social and cultural change his political goals, including the pursuit of official bilingualism in Canada and plans for significant constitutional change.

Bilingual belt

Personal bilingualism is most concentrated in southern Quebec and a swath of territory sometimes referred to as the bilingual belt, which stretches east from Quebec through northern and eastern New Brunswick and west through Ottawa and that part of Ontario lying to the east of Ottawa, as well as north-eastern Ontario.

Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

section 16sections 16section 16 of the ''Charter
The depth of the party’s commitment to official bilingualism is demonstrated by the fact that the constitution of the Liberal Party contains provisions modelled almost word-for-word on Section 16(1) of the Charter of Rights: "English and French are the official languages of the Party and have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all federal institutions of the Party. In pursuing its fundamental purposes and in all its activities, the Party must preserve and promote the status, rights and privileges of English and French."

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.

Parliament of Canada

ParliamentCanadian ParliamentMP
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.