Official development assistance

OECD's Development Assistance Committee member states

Category used by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure foreign aid.

- Official development assistance

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Development Assistance Committee

Forum to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty reduction in developing countries.

OECD's Development Assistance Committee member states

To that end, the committee adopted the concept of Official Development Assistance (ODA) in 1969.

Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all".

A diagram listing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals
Sufficient and healthy foods should be made available to everyone
Mothers with healthy children in rural India
School children in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya
Example of sanitation for all: School toilet (IPH school and college, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
Solar panels on house roof
Nusa Lembongan Reef
World map showing countries that are closest to meeting the SDGs (in dark blue) and those with the greatest remaining challenges (in the lightest shade of blue) in 2018.
Young people holding SDG banners in Lima, Peru
Training on Education for sustainable development workshop in Kasese district Uganda
SDG wedding cake model: A way of viewing the economic, social and ecological aspects of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Boeing 787 of XiamenAir uses a GEnx engine which reduces carbon emissions and noise pollution.
Cost comparison for UN Goals
Katherine Maher, Executive Director of the Wikimedia Foundation, talks about "The role of free knowledge in advancing the SDGs" in Stockholm, 2019
A proposal to visualize the 17 SDGs in a thematic pyramid.
Global Goals Week logo
The sustainable development goals are a UN initiative.
UN SDG consultations in Mariupol, Ukraine

Official development assistance (ODA) disbursements to the water sector increased to $9 billion in 2018.


In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid, economic aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.

A map of official development assistance distribution in 2005.
U.S. soldiers unload humanitarian aid for distribution to the town of Rajan Kala, Afghanistan, 5 December 2009
Official Development Assistance (ODA) measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD
Marshall Plan aid to Germany, West Berlin, 1949

The most widely used measure of aid is "Official Development Assistance" (ODA).

Tied aid

Foreign aid that must be spent on products & services provided by companies that are from the country providing the aid or in a group of selected countries.

Distributions of tied and untied aid
Value reduced by 30 %
Value reduced by 20 %

In 2006, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimated that 41.7 percent of Official Development Assistance is untied.

Sustainable Development Goal 17

About "partnerships for the goals."

Government revenue as a share of GDP, 2017. Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines,
SDG Indicator 17.1.2 Map- showing the Share of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes, 2016
World Map Indicator 17.4.1 - Debt Service as a proportion of exports of goods and services
World map for indicator 17.8.1 - Proportion of individuals using the Internet in 2017
SDG Indicator 17.10.1 Chart- showing the Tariff rate across all products, 1989 to 2016
World Map Indicator 17.11.1 - Exports by income group
SDG Indicator 17.15.1 Map showing Proportion of results, indicators and new interventions drawn from..., World

This online tool enables users to see indicators related to Official Development Assistance (ODA) Spending and local spending on issues related to the other SDGs nationally and by state, as well as relevant information for over fifteen thousand tax-exempt organizations in the US working on issues related to UN SDG 17.


Network of high-speed railway lines in Japan.

A lineup of JR East Shinkansen trains in October 2012
A lineup of JR West Shinkansen trains in October 2008
Map of Shinkansen lines (excluding the Hakata-Minami Line and Gala-Yuzawa Line extension)
A JNR map from the October 1964 English-language timetable, showing the then-new Tokaido Shinkansen line (in red) and conventional lines
A 0 series set in Tokyo, May 1967
1964 JNR Passenger Timetable, Table 1, showing shinkansen service on the New Tokaido Line
Shinkansen standard gauge track, with welded rails to reduce vibration
Braking curve for the original ATC-1 used on the Tokaido Shinkansen (vertical axis represents the speed of the train whereas the horizontal axis represents the distance)
Replica of the Shinkansen CTC as seen at the Kyoto Railway Museum
A passenger's view of Shinkansen coaches (E2-1000 Series)
Map of proposed Shinkansen lines
Tokyo Station Tokaido Shinkansen platforms, September 2021
The Shinkansen fare system is integrated with Japan's low-speed intercity railway lines, but a surcharge is required to ride the Shinkansen. Here, an ordinary ticket from Tokyo to Takamatsu is coupled with a Shinkansen surcharge ticket from Tokyo to Okayama, allowing use of the Shinkansen from Tokyo to Okayama and use of local lines from Okayama to Takamatsu. For trips exclusively on one Shinkansen, the ordinary fare and Shinkansen surcharge may be combined on one ticket.
Class 955 "300X"
L0 Series Shinkansen, unconventional world speed record holder (603 km/h)
Construction of the Hokuriku Shinkansen in Fukui
Shinkansen 700T train on a test run on the Taiwan High Speed Rail in September 2013
China Railways CRH2 based on the E2 Series Shinkansen, September 2018
Class 395 in the United Kingdom, September 2009
0 series
100 series
300 series
500 series
700 series
700 series (Hikari Rail Star)
N700 series
N700A series
N700S series
800 series
N700 series (Kyushu)
200 series
E1 series
E2 series
E4 series
E5 series
H5 series
E7 series
W7 series
400 series
E3 series (Komachi)
E3 series (Tsubasa)
E6 series
Class 1000
Class 951
Class 961
Doctor Yellow Type 925
Gauge change train (2nd generation)
Fastech 360S
Fastech 360Z
L0 series
Doctor Yellow Type 922
Doctor Yellow Type 923
Type E926 East-i
Type 911 locomotive
Track maintenance vehicles stabled along sidings outside Kyoto station
Tamping machine
Ballast cleaner
Overhead line replacement vehicle
Loading vehicle

Hanoi was exploring additional Japanese funding Official Development Assistance as well as funds from the World Bank and Asian Development Bank.

Fellow of the Royal Society

Award granted by the judges of the Royal Society of London to individuals who have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science, and medical science".

Headquarters of the Royal Society in Carlton House Terrace in London
Isaac Newton was one of the earliest fellows of the Royal Society, elected in 1672.
Stephen Hawking was elected a fellow in 1974
Bill Bryson was elected an Honorary Member in 2013
David Attenborough was elected a fellow in 1983, under former statute 12
Brian Cox, a professor of physics, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 2016 having previously held a Royal Society University Research Fellowship (URF) from 2005 to 2013

Newton advanced fellowships provide established international researchers with an opportunity to develop the research strengths and capabilities of their research group. These are provided by the Newton Fund as part of the UK's official development assistance.


Tribal taluk in Kerala state covering an area of 735 km2.

Mukkali Junction, the entrance to the Silent Valley National Park
A view of the Malleswaran peak
The ticket office of Silent Valley National Park
A close up view of the Malleswaran peak
Chemmannur Bridge in Bhavani River, Attappadi, Kerala, India
Malleeswara Vidya Nikethan
Swami Vivekananda Medical Mission Hospital, Agaly

This project has Rs. 2.19 billion ($5,000,000) development assistance loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) and is implemented by the Attappady Hills Area Development Society.

Economy of Samoa

Dependent on agricultural exports, development aid and private financing from overseas.

Unloading a lighter at Apia Wharf, around 1975–1985.
Samoa electricity production by source

In addition to the expatriate community, Samoa also receives roughly $28 million annually in official development assistance from sources led by China, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand.

Foreign relations of Taiwan

[[File:ROC, PRC.png|thumb|250x250px|Diplomatic relations between world states and Taiwan today

The vote in the UN General Assembly on Resolution 2758 (1971) recognizing the People's Republic of China as "the only legitimate representative of China".
Green = In favour, Red = Against, Blue = Abstention, Yellow = Non-voting, Grey = Non-UN-members or dependencies.
The ROC embassy in Eswatini
Due to the limited size of Vatican City, all embassies accredited to the Holy See are located in Rome, outside the borders of Vatican City. Hence, the ROC's embassy to the Holy See is located in Italy, a country that does not officially recognise, but still maintains close unofficial links with, the ROC.
Luxembourg aircraft in Taiwan
Former French Embassy to the ROC in Nanjing
Former Mexican Embassy to the ROC in Nanjing
Former Soviet Union Embassy to the ROC in Nanjing
Former United Kingdom Embassy to the ROC in Nanjing
Former United States Embassy to the ROC in Nanjing
A series of maps that illustrate the struggle between the People's Republic of China and Republic of China for international recognition
Ma–Xi meeting in 2015
Egyptian President Muhammad Naguib with Chinese Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army General Ma Bufang
ROC Chinese Muslim National Revolutionary Army General Ma Bufang with the Kuomintang ambassador to Saudi Arabia in 1955.
Ma Bufang and family in Egypt in 1954.
Eswatini Queen Mother Ntombi Tfwala and President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan.
Paraguay President Horacio Cartes and President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan.
US President Dwight D. Eisenhower and President Chiang Kai-shek of ROC in Taiwan. 1960.
Chiang Kai-shek and Eisenhower wave to crowd during visit to Taiwan in June 1960.
President Tsai Ing-wen meets with US Senate delegation led by John McCain, June 2016
Member of the House of Representative of Japan Keiji Furuya and President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan on 20 May 2016.
Kiribati President Taneti Mamau and President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan.
Marshall Islands President H.E. Hilda C. Heine with Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen in October 2017
Nauru President Baron Waqa and President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan.
Palau President Tommy Remengesau and President Tsai Ing-wen in Taiwan.
Solomon Islands Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare meets with Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen in July 2016
Picture from President Tsai Ing-wen's state visit to Solomon Islands in November 2017
President Tsai visits Governor-General of Tuvalu Iakoba Italeli in November 2017
Embassy area
Office area
Chinese Taipei Deaflympic flag
Flag of Chinese Taipei in the official Olympic Games
Chinese Taipei Paralympic flag
Chinese Taipei Universiade flag
A China Airlines Boeing 747-400 in old livery, bearing the ROC flag.

The ROC is one of the main supporters of official development assistance, with the International Cooperation and Development Fund managing ROC's Foreign Assistance and International Cooperation projects.