Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative languagestate languageofficial statusadministrative languagesofficial state languageco-officialAdministrative language(s)co-official language
An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.wikipedia
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National language

main languagenationalmajority language
Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages. After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the then Head of the State Sheikh Mujibur Rahman adopted the policy of ‘one state one language’ The de facto national language, Bengali, is the sole official language of Bangladesh according to the third article of the Constitution of Bangladesh.
"National language" and "official language" are best understood as two concepts or legal categories with ranges of meaning that may coincide, or may be intentionally separate.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
Arabic, French, and Spanish are also widely recognized.
French is an official language in 29 countries across multiple continents, most of which are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), the community of 84 countries which share the official use or teaching of French.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
English is the most common official language, with recognized status in 51 countries. Among those, English is the most common with 67 nations giving it official status.
It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states.

Nigeria

Federal Republic of NigeriaNigerianNGA
An instance is Nigeria which has three endoglossic official languages.
The official language of Nigeria is Nigerian English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level.

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
Around 500 BC, when Darius the Great annexed Mesopotamia to the Persian Empire, he chose a form of the Aramaic language (the so-called Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic) as the vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages.
Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
Arabic, French, and Spanish are also widely recognized. South Africa is the country with the most official languages, all at equal status to one another, in the world as Bolivia gives primacy to Spanish and India gives primacy to Hindi.
It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and [[List of countries where Spanish is an official language#International organizations where Spanish is official|many other international organizations]].

List of territorial entities where English is an official language

English-speaking countriesList of countries where English is an official languageEnglish-
Among those, English is the most common with 67 nations giving it official status.
]]The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials.

List of territorial entities where German is an official language

German-speaking countriesGerman speaking countriesGerman-speaking Europe
French is second with 29 countries, Arabic is third with 26 countries and Spanish is fourth with 21 countries, Portuguese is the official language of 9 countries and German is official in 6.
The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
Standardization of the spoken language received less political attention, and Mandarin developed on an ad hoc basis from the dialects of the various imperial capitals until being officially standardized in the early twentieth century.
Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore.

U.S. English (organization)

U.S. Englishmaking English the official language of the United StatesU.S. English, Inc.
According to an undated chart by the American pro-English-only organization known as U.S. English, 178 countries have an official language at the national level.
U.S. English is the umbrella name for two American political advocacy groups founded in 1983 by former United States Senator S.I. Hayakawa to advocate the adoption of English as the official language of the United States.

Old Aramaic language

Imperial AramaicOld AramaicAramaic
Around 500 BC, when Darius the Great annexed Mesopotamia to the Persian Empire, he chose a form of the Aramaic language (the so-called Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic) as the vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages.
In 1955, Richard Frye questioned the classification of Imperial Aramaic as an "official language", noting that no surviving edict expressly and unambiguously accorded that status to any particular language.

Pashto

Pashto languagePushtoPashtu
In accordance with Chapter 1, Article 16 of the Constitution of Afghanistan, the Afghan government gives equal status to Pashto and Dari as official languages.
Pashto and Dari are the two official languages of Afghanistan.

Bengali language

BengaliBanglaBengali-language
After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the then Head of the State Sheikh Mujibur Rahman adopted the policy of ‘one state one language’ The de facto national language, Bengali, is the sole official language of Bangladesh according to the third article of the Constitution of Bangladesh.
The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali (Literary Bengali).

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
French is second with 29 countries, Arabic is third with 26 countries and Spanish is fourth with 21 countries, Portuguese is the official language of 9 countries and German is official in 6.
(in Portuguese Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, with the Portuguese acronym CPLP) consists of the eight independent countries that have Portuguese as an official language: Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and São Tomé and Príncipe.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
Belarusian and Russian have official status in the Republic of Belarus.
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is an official language in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

Belarusian language

BelarusianBelorussianbe
Belarusian and Russian have official status in the Republic of Belarus.
It is the official language of Belarus, along with the Russian language.

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
In the Canadian province of Quebec, for example, laws restrict the use of the minority English in education, on signs, and in the workplace.
It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language.

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
According to the Finnish constitution, Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of the republic.
Finnish, along with Swedish, is an official language of Finland; Finnish is also an official minority language in Sweden.

Minority language

minority languagesminoritylinguistic minorities
However, its minority languages include Sorbian (Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian), Romani, Danish and North Frisian, which are officially recognised.
Some minority languages are simultaneously also official languages, including the Irish language in Ireland.

Achaemenid Assyria

AthuraAssyriaAchaemenid
Around 500 BC, when Darius the Great annexed Mesopotamia to the Persian Empire, he chose a form of the Aramaic language (the so-called Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic) as the vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages.
The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed "Official Aramaic" or "Imperial Aramaic", is thought to have greatly contributed to the success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Some countries—like Australia, United Kingdom and the United States—have no official language recognized as such at national level.
Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English.

Hong Kong English

EnglishEnglish languageHong Kong
According to the Basic Law of Hong Kong and the Official Languages Ordinance, both Chinese and English are the official languages of Hong Kong with equal status.
English is one of the official languages in Hong Kong, and is used widely in the Government, academic circles, business and the courts.

Tamil language

TamilTamil-languageta
In addition, the Government of India has awarded the distinction of classical language to Tamil, Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam and Odia.
Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore.

Hindi

Hindi languageHindi-languageStandard Hindi
South Africa is the country with the most official languages, all at equal status to one another, in the world as Bolivia gives primacy to Spanish and India gives primacy to Hindi.
Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language.

Malayalam

Malayalam languageMalayalam-languageMalayalam–language
In addition, the Government of India has awarded the distinction of classical language to Tamil, Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam and Odia.
Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry (Mahé) and is spoken by 37 million people worldwide.