Artists conception of the Fort Ancient SunWatch Indian Village in Dayton.
Iroquois conquests during the Beaver Wars (mid-1600s), which largely depopulated the upper and mid-Ohio River valley.
The Ohio Country indicating battle sites between American settlers and indigenous tribes, 1775–1794.
Rufus Putnam by James Sharples, Jr., 1797
Battle of Lake Erie by William Henry Powell.
The route of Morgan's Raid.
The first Standard Oil refinery was opened in Cleveland by businessman John D. Rockefeller.
Iron being converted to steel for wartime efforts at Youngstown's Republic Steel in 1941.
Geographic regions of Ohio.
Map of Ohio cities and rivers.
Köppen climate types of Ohio, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Ohio population density map.
Amish children on their way to school
Cincinnati's Procter & Gamble is one of Ohio's largest companies in terms of revenue.
Cincinnati light rail
The Ohio Statehouse in Columbus, home to the Ohio General Assembly.
The Thomas J. Moyer Ohio Judicial Center holds the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Presidential election results by county for 2020
University Hall at the Ohio State University in Columbus.
Bosworth Hall at Oberlin College in northeast Ohio.
Springer Auditorium at the Cincinnati Music Hall.
Progressive Field, home to the Cleveland Guardians baseball team
Ohio Stadium in Columbus, home to the Ohio State Buckeyes football team, is the fifth largest stadium in the world.

State in the Midwestern region of the United States.

- Ohio

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Greater Cleveland

More commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States.

More commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States.

NASA satellite photograph of Cleveland at night
Commerce by Daniel Chester French at the Metzenbaum U.S. Courthouse on Superior Avenue, Cleveland
The Greater Cleveland highway network
Playhouse Square, Cleveland
Progressive Field, home of the Cleveland Guardians

According to the 2020 United States Census results, the five-county Cleveland–Elyria Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) consists of Cuyahoga County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, and Medina County, and has a population of 2,088,251, making Greater Cleveland the 34th most populous metropolitan area in the United States, and the second largest metropolitan area in Ohio.


U.S. state spanning the Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern, and Appalachian regions of the United States.

U.S. state spanning the Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern, and Appalachian regions of the United States.

William Penn, a Quaker and son of a prominent admiral, founded Pennsylvania in 1681
Shelter House in Emmaus, constructed in 1734 by Pennsylvania German settlers, is believed to be the oldest continuously occupied building structure in the Lehigh Valley and one of the oldest in Pennsylvania.
Independence Hall in Philadelphia, where the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were drafted and adopted in 1776 and 1787-88, respectively.
The July 1-3, 1863 Battle of Gettysburg in Gettysburg, which was a turning point in the Union Army's ultimate victory in the American Civil War, is depicted in this 1887 Thure de Thulstrup painting. Gettysburg was the Civil War's deadliest battle with 51,118 total casualties.
On November 19, 1863, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln (center, facing camera) arrived in Gettysburg and delivered the Gettysburg Address, considered one of the best-known speeches in American history.
Hazleton coal miners in 1900. Coal mining was a major economic activity in Pennsylvania in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Anti-nuclear protest in Harrisburg following the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident in Londonderry Township, September 1979
The crash site of Flight 93 in Somerset County following the September 11 attacks
South Mountain with Allentown in the foreground, December 2010
Worlds End State Park in Sullivan County, June 2008
Köppen climate types in Pennsylvania
Autumn in North Branch Township in Wyoming County, October 2011
Allentown, the state's third largest city, May 2010
Pennsylvania jurist John Morton (1725–1777) was one of nine Pennsylvanians, the most of any of the Thirteen Colonies, to sign the Declaration of Independence. Other Pennsylvanians to sign the Declaration include George Clymer, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Morris, George Ross, Benjamin Rush, James Smith, George Taylor, and James Wilson.
Pennsylvania's population growth from 1790 to 2000
Pennsylvania's population distribution as of the 2000 census
An Amish family riding in a traditional Amish buggy in Lancaster County, May 2004
Bethlehem Steel in Bethlehem was one of the world's leading steel manufacturers for most of the 19th and 20th century. In 1982, it discontinued most of its operations, declared bankruptcy in 2001, and was dissolved in 2003.
Geo map of average income by location in Pennsylvania. Data shown is from the 2014 American Community Survey five-year estimate.
Wind Creek Bethlehem casino in Bethlehem, March 2014
Pennsylvania's 67 counties
The Pennsylvania State Capitol, built in 1906 in Harrisburg, June 2020
South Philadelphia High School on Broad Street in South Philadelphia, February 2010
Benjamin Franklin statue on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League institution in Philadelphia and one of the top universities in the world, August 2007
Dorney Park and Wildwater Kingdom's Steel Force and Thunderhawk roller coasters in Allentown. Steel Force is the tenth longest steel rollercoaster in the world.
Road and rail map of Pennsylvania
U.S. Route 220 as it passes through Lamar Township, August 2010
30th Street Station in Philadelphia, Amtrak's third busiest train station in the nation, July 2016
The Pennsylvanian navigating the historic Horseshoe Curve near Altoona, May 2013
Philadelphia International Airport is the busiest airport in Pennsylvania and the 21st busiest overall in the United States
The Philadelphia Eagles are presented with the Vince Lombardi Trophy after winning Super Bowl LII, February 4, 2018
Citizens Bank Park in South Philadelphia, home of the Philadelphia Phillies, May 2009
NASCAR racing at Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, September 2006
Beaver Stadium, a 106,572 capacity stadium in University Park, is the home field of the Penn State Nittany Lions.
Geno's Steaks in South Philadelphia is widely credited with inventing the cheesesteak in 1933.
Hershey Chocolate Factory in Hershey, August 1976

It borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.


Abraham Lincoln Birthplace near Hodgenville
A map of Kentucky
Kentucky's regions (click on image for color-coding information)
Lake Cumberland is the largest artificial American lake east of the Mississippi River by volume.
Once an industrial wasteland, Louisville's reclaimed waterfront now features thousands of trees and miles of walking trails.
Red River Gorge is one of Kentucky's most visited places.
Forest at Otter Creek Outdoor Recreation Area, Meade County, Kentucky
Kentucky Population Density Map
Lexington Theological Seminary (then College of the Bible), 1904
The best selling car in the United States, the Toyota Camry, is manufactured in Georgetown, Kentucky.
The best selling truck in the United States, the Ford F-Series, is manufactured in Louisville, Kentucky.
The Ark Encounter in Williamstown, KY
Spring running of Keeneland in Lexington, KY
William T. Young Library at the University of Kentucky, Kentucky's flagship university.
The J.B. Speed School of Engineering at the University of Louisville, Kentucky's urban research university.
At 484 mi long, Kentucky Route 80 is the longest route in Kentucky, pictured here west of Somerset.
High Bridge over the Kentucky River was the tallest rail bridge in the world when it was completed in 1877.
A barge hauling coal in the Louisville and Portland Canal, the only manmade section of the Ohio River
The governor's mansion in Frankfort
The Kentucky State Capitol building in Frankfort
A map showing Kentucky's six congressional districts
State sign, Interstate 65
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
The Buffalo Trace Distillery
Old Louisville is the largest Victorian Historic neighborhood in the United States.
The U.S. 23 Country Music Highway Museum in Paintsville provides background on the country music artists from Eastern Kentucky.
The Hot Brown
Kentucky's Churchill Downs hosts the Kentucky Derby.

Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States and one of the states of the Upper South, bordered by Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to the north; West Virginia and Virginia to the east; Tennessee to the south; and Missouri to the west.

West Virginia

State in the Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions of the United States.

State in the Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions of the United States.

Thomas Lee, the first manager of the Ohio Company of Virginia
A slave wedding in Virginia, 1838
Map of Virginia dated June 13, 1861, featuring the percentage of slave population within each county at the 1860 census and the proposed state of Kanawha
Francis H. Pierpont, a leader during the Second Wheeling Convention.
Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight, a statue on the grounds of the West Virginia State Capitol
Harpers Ferry alternated between Confederate and Union rule eight times during the American Civil War, and was finally annexed by West Virginia.
Votes by county in the October 1861 statehood vote
Child labor in the coal mines of West Virginia, 1908.
Family of a coal miner, circa 1935
Saturday afternoon street scene, Welch, McDowell County, 1946
Map of West Virginia counties
Shaded relief map of the Cumberland Plateau and Ridge-and-valley Appalachians
The summit of Spruce Knob is often covered in clouds.
Köppen climate types of West Virginia, using 1991-2020 climate normals
West Virginia population density map
Seneca Rocks, Pendleton County
Bituminous coal seam in southwestern West Virginia
Bluefield, a major center for coal mining, in 2014
The West Virginia State Capitol in Charleston is home to the West Virginia Legislature.
A toll plaza on the West Virginia Turnpike
The iconic New River Gorge Bridge near Fayetteville
The Veterans Memorial Bridge carries US 22 from Steubenville into Ohio.

It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north and east, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, and Ohio to the northwest.

Lake Erie from the David M. Roderick Wildlife Reserve

Lake Erie

Fourth largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America and the eleventh-largest globally.

Fourth largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America and the eleventh-largest globally.

Lake Erie from the David M. Roderick Wildlife Reserve
The Great Lakes, with Lake Erie highlighted in darker blue
False-color satellite image of Lake Erie, 2007
North shore in mid-December, 2014
Partial map of the Lake Erie Islands
Map showing Lake Erie, 1754
Walk in Water, built in Buffalo, was the first steamship on Lake Erie. Picture circa 1816.
Battle of Lake Erie (1865) by William H. Powell depicts US Navy commander Oliver Hazard Perry
At an Ohio history festival, the 19th-century style brig warship USS Niagara passes the Lorain lighthouse.
View from Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial at Put-in-Bay, Ohio
Lake Erie historical map, 1901
Cold air travels over warm lake water. The air becomes warmer, moister, less dense, so that it rises; when it passes over land, the reduced airspace causes the air to "pile up" resulting in "frictional convergence." This lifts the air even further to where it cools, turning into droplets or snowflakes. The result is enhanced snowfall.
Lake Erie in winter
Lake Erie in winter
A coal-fired power plant in Avon Lake, Ohio located on Lake Erie
A 1973 photo from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency showing beach erosion, algae, and uprooted trees as a result of environmental issues
The green scum shown in this image taken in October 2011 is the worst algae bloom Lake Erie has experienced in decades.
Trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) on Lake Erie
Summer morning west of Cleveland
Sunset on Lake Erie seen through a fishing net
Canadian commercial fishing boat coming into the harbor at Port Burwell on Lake Erie.
Winery on Middle Bass Island
The paddle steamer Anthony Wayne sank in 1850 and was located in 2006 about 6 mi north of Vermilion, Ohio.
Presque Isle State Park in Pennsylvania is a peninsula in Lake Erie
Alvar habitat on Kelleys Island. South Bass Island visible in distance.
Lighthouse on Mohawk Island, Ontario
The West Pierhead Lighthouse in Cleveland, Ohio
Lake Erie on May 28, 2022, taken from the International Space Station

Situated on the International Boundary between Canada and the United States, Lake Erie's northern shore is the Canadian province of Ontario, specifically the Ontario Peninsula, with the U.S. states of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York on its western, southern, and eastern shores.


U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

Angel Mounds State Historic Site was one of the northernmost Mississippian culture settlements, occupied from 1100 to 1450.
Native Americans guide French explorers through Indiana, as depicted by Maurice Thompson in Stories of Indiana.
Indiana's Capitol Building in Corydon served as the state's seat of government from 1816 until 1825.
Rolling hills in the Charles C. Deam Wilderness Area of Hoosier National Forest, in the Indiana Uplands
The Wabash River converges with the Ohio River at Posey County.
Köppen climate types of Indiana, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Indiana is home to the third largest population of Amish in the U.S.
Mike Pence at the Indiana State Fair, 2014
Members of the Indiana National Guard at the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville
Indianapolis is home to the annual Indianapolis 500 race.
The Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League have been based in the state since 1984.
Simon Skjodt Assembly Hall, home to Indiana Hoosiers men's basketball
Notre Dame Stadium, home to the Fighting Irish
Lake Michigan's beaches, popular with tourists, are juxtaposed with heavy industry.
Indiana is the fifth largest corn-producing state in the U.S., with over a billion bushels harvested in 2013.
Coal-fired electric plants, like Clifty Creek Power Plant in Madison, produced about 85 percent of Indiana's energy supply in 2014.
The Interstate 69 extension project in Monroe County
A South Shore commuter train in Michigan City
Barges are a common sight along the Ohio River. Ports of Indiana manages three maritime ports in the state, two located on the Ohio.

It is bordered by Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, the Ohio River and Kentucky to the south and southeast, and the Wabash River and Illinois to the west.

List of governors of Ohio

The governor's working office is in the Vern Riffe State Office Tower in downtown Columbus

The governor of Ohio is the head of government of Ohio and the commander-in-chief of the U.S. state's military forces.

The Iowa State Capitol building, where the Iowa General Assembly convenes

Ohio General Assembly

The Iowa State Capitol building, where the Iowa General Assembly convenes

The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio.

Seal of the Supreme Court of Ohio

Supreme Court of Ohio

Seal of the Supreme Court of Ohio
The Thomas J. Moyer Ohio Judicial Center

The Supreme Court of the State of Ohio is the highest court in the U.S. state of Ohio, with final authority over interpretations of Ohio law and the Ohio Constitution.

Northwest Territory

Formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the American Revolutionary War.

Formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the American Revolutionary War.

The state cessions that eventually allowed for the creation of the territories north and southwest of the River Ohio
Check signed by Arthur St. Clair while governor of the Northwest Territory (1796)
Map showing the general distribution of Native American tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s.
Rufus Putnam. This portrait by James Sharples, Jr. is in the collection of Independence National Historical Park, and hangs in the Second Bank of the United States building in Philadelphia.
Campus Martius ("Field of Mars" in Latin) was named after the part of Rome of the same name. This site, including the Rufus Putnam House, is now part of the Campus Martius Museum in Marietta, Ohio.
Map of the states and territories of the United States as it was on August 7, 1789, when the Northwest Territory was first organized, to April 2, 1790, when the future Southwest Territory was ceded by North Carolina
Abraham Bradley's 1796 map of the United States includes many forts and settlements within the Northwest Territory.
Seal of the Northwest Territory over a time capsule outside the Campus Martius Museum. The Latin phrase, "He has planted one better than the one fallen," signifies the replacement of wilderness by civilization.
Territorial county of Wayne
Ohio counties in 1802

It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U.S. states (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the northeastern part of Minnesota).