Oil-for-Food Programme

Oil-for-Food ProgramOil for FoodOil for Food programoil-for-foodOil-for-Food scandaloil for food programmeOil for Food ScandalU.N. Oil-for-Food scandalFood for OilIraqi oil scam
The Oil-for-Food Programme (OIP), established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) was established to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to boost its military capabilities.wikipedia
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United Nations Security Council Resolution 986

986Resolution 986
The Oil-for-Food Programme (OIP), established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) was established to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to boost its military capabilities.
United Nations Security Council resolution 986, adopted unanimously on 14 April 1995, after reaffirming all resolutions on Iraq and noting the serious humanitarian situation with the Iraqi civilian population, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, established a mechanism whereby Iraqi oil exports would finance humanitarian aid to the country, which later became known as the Oil-for-Food Programme.

Kofi Annan

United Nations Information Technology Service (UNITeS)Kofi A. AnnanAnnan, Kofi
Shortly before United States and British forces invaded Iraq, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan suspended the programme and evacuated more than 300 workers monitoring the distribution of supplies.
He was criticized for not expanding the Security Council and faced calls for resignation after an investigation into the Oil-for-Food Programme, but was largely exonerated of personal corruption.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483

Resolution 14831483UN Security Council Resolution 1483
On 22 May 2003, UN Security Council Resolution 1483 granted authority to the Coalition Provisional Authority to use Iraq's oil revenue.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1483, adopted on 22 May 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation between Iraq and Kuwait, the Council lifted trade sanctions against Iraq (excluding an arms embargo) and terminated the Oil-for-Food Programme.

Coalition Provisional Authority

IraqCPACivilian administrator of Iraq
On 22 May 2003, UN Security Council Resolution 1483 granted authority to the Coalition Provisional Authority to use Iraq's oil revenue. The sanctions were discontinued on 21 November 2003 after the U.S. invasion of Iraq, and the humanitarian functions turned over to the Coalition Provisional Authority.
This fund superseded the earlier UN oil-for-food program, and provided funding for Iraq's wheat purchase program, the currency exchange program, the electricity and oil infrastructure programs, equipment for Iraq's security forces, Iraqi civil service salaries, and the operations of the various government ministries.

Benon Sevan

Benon Sevan of Cyprus, who headed the programme, defended it, claiming that it had only a 2.2% administrative cost and that it was subject to more than 100 internal and external audits.
Benon Vahe Sevan (born December 18, 1937 Nicosia, Cyprus) was the head of the United Nations' Oil-for-Food Programme, established in 1996 and charged with preventing Iraq's government from using the proceeds from oil exports for anything but food, medicine and other items to benefit the civilian population.

Natwar Singh

K. Natwar SinghKunwar Natwar SinghKanwar Natwar Singh
Named in the list of beneficiaries were George Galloway, then a British member of parliament, and his charity, the Mariam Appeal; former French Interior Minister Charles Pasqua; Shaker al-Kaffaji, an Iraqi-American businessman; Indian Foreign Minister Natwar Singh, and Bheem Singh.
However, 18 months later, he had to resign under a cloud after the UN's Volcker committee named both him and the Congress party to which he belonged as beneficiaries of illegal pay-offs in the Iraqi oil scam.

Elf Aquitaine

ElfEcurie ElfÉcurie Elf
Auchi received a 15-month suspended sentence for his involvement in the Elf scandal, which the British newspaper called "the biggest fraud inquiry in Europe since the Second World War", saying "Elf became a private bank for its executives who spent £200 million on political favours, mistresses, jewellery, fine art, villas and apartments".
He is BNP Paribas bank's main private share-holder; and until 2001, the money for the Oil-for-Food programme transited through the escrow account of BNP Paribas.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
The Oil-for-Food Programme (OIP), established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) was established to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to boost its military capabilities.
An oil for food program was established in 1996 to ease the effects of sanctions.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 706

706Resolution 706resolutions 706
Security Council Resolution 706 of 15 August 1991 was introduced to allow the sale of Iraqi oil in exchange for food.
The provisions of Resolution 706 functioned in a way similar to that which was later implemented in the Oil-for-Food Programme under Resolution 986 in 1995.

Paul Volcker

Paul A. VolckerPaul A. Volcker, Jr.Volcker shock
According to an interim report released on 3 February 2005 by former Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcker's commission (see #Investigations below), much of the food aid supplied under the programme "was unfit for human consumption". A report by UN investigator Paul Volcker released in October 2005 found that the Australian Wheat Board, later AWB Limited, was the biggest single source of kickbacks for the Iraqi government.
In April 2004, the United Nations assigned Volcker to research possible corruption in the Iraqi Oil for Food program.

Memorandum of understanding

MoUmemorandum of agreementmemoranda of understanding
After an initial refusal, Iraq signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) in May 1996 for arrangements to be taken to implement that resolution.

Saddam Hussein

SaddamSadam HusseinSadaam Hussein
The programme was introduced by United States President Bill Clinton's administration in 1995, as a response to arguments that ordinary Iraqi citizens were inordinately affected by the international economic sanctions aimed at the demilitarisation of Saddam Hussein's Iraq, imposed in the wake of the first Gulf War.
On 9 December 1996, Saddam's government accepted the Oil-for-Food Programme that the UN had first offered in 1992.

George Galloway

George Galloway MPappearance by George Gallowaycontroversial appearance
Named in the list of beneficiaries were George Galloway, then a British member of parliament, and his charity, the Mariam Appeal; former French Interior Minister Charles Pasqua; Shaker al-Kaffaji, an Iraqi-American businessman; Indian Foreign Minister Natwar Singh, and Bheem Singh.
The documents purported to be records of meetings between Galloway and Iraqi intelligence agents, and they stated that he had received £375,000 per year from the proceeds of the Oil-for-Food Programme.

Alexander Yakovlev (diplomat)

Alexander YakovlevAleksandr Yakovlev
Fox News broke the story that Alexander Yakovlev, a Russian official in the UN Procurement Department, was involved; he later resigned and pleaded guilty to corruption charges.
Alexander Yakovlev was a long-serving tenured member of the United Nations procurement department who was involved in the Oil-for-Food Programme scandal and had other allegations of impropriety.

Cole Inquiry

Inquiry into certain Australian companies in relation to the UN Oil-For-Food ProgrammeAWB scandalWikisource: Cole report into the granting of 11 Irish passports to Khalid bin Mahfouz and his associates
The Cole Inquiry commenced in December 2005.
The Inquiry into certain Australian companies in relation to the UN Oil-For-Food Programme, or less formally, the Cole Inquiry, was a Royal Commission established by the Australian government pursuant to the to investigate "whether decisions, actions, conduct or payments by Australian companies mentioned in the Volcker Inquiry into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Programme breached any Federal, State or Territory law."

Aqila al-Hashimi

Aquila al-HashimiAkila Al-Hashimi
According to information from Aqila al-Hashimi, who was senior bureaucrat with the Oil-for-Food Programme in Iraq, of the programme's total of 60 billion dollars, "roughly 65% was actually applied to aid".
Al-Hashimi ran the oil for food programme in the Foreign Ministry under Saddam Hussein.

Paul Volcker Committee

Independent Inquiry CommitteeVolcker Inquiryassigned
The Paul Volcker Committee (Independent Inquiry Committee) was formed to investigate alleged corruption and fraud in the United Nations Oil-for-Food Programme in Iraq.

Dileep Nair

In 2000, Dileep Nair, the UN corruption watchdog, wanted to determine the programme's level of vulnerability.
In 2000, he wanted to determine vulnerability of the United Nations' Oil-for-Food Programme for Iraq.

War reparations

reparationswar reparationwar indemnity
The money was then apportioned to pay for war reparations to Kuwait, ongoing coalition and United Nations operations within Iraq.
Funds for these payments were to come from a 30% share of Iraq's oil revenues from the oil for food program.

Louise Fréchette

Louise FrechetteFréchette, LouiseMrs. Fréchette
Sevan and UN Deputy Secretary-General Louise Frechette, rejected any such investigation, claiming that it would be too expensive to be worthwhile.
In 2005, after being criticized by former U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker for failed management of the Iraq Oil-for-Food Program, Fréchette announced her resignation.

Mariam Appeal

Named in the list of beneficiaries were George Galloway, then a British member of parliament, and his charity, the Mariam Appeal; former French Interior Minister Charles Pasqua; Shaker al-Kaffaji, an Iraqi-American businessman; Indian Foreign Minister Natwar Singh, and Bheem Singh.
Examination of the Appeal's bank accounts revealed the major funders to be the United Arab Emirates, a donor from Saudi Arabia and the Jordanian businessman Fawaz Zureikat (later alleged to be implicated in the Oil-for-Food Programme scandal).

Vladimir Zhirinovsky

ZhirinovskyVladimir Volfovich ZhirinovskyPolitician and political activist Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky
Among Russians who received the money were Alexander Voloshin and Vladimir Zhirinovsky.
Allegations have dogged Zhirinovsky closely since the fall of Baghdad that he personally profited from illicit oil sales as part of the Oil-for Food scandal, a charge investigated in 2005 by the Independent Inquiry Committee into the Oil-for-Food Programme (Volcker Commission) and the [[United States Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations|US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations]] (PSI).

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia)

Department of Foreign Affairs and TradeDepartment of Foreign AffairsAustralian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
The AWB was fully compensated for the charges by increases in the price paid; the payments were approved by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
In 2005, DFAT became embroiled in the Oil-for-Food Programme scandal after it was revealed it had approved the Australian Wheat Board's (AWB) request allowing it to pay 'trucking charges' to Alia, a Jordanian trucking company with no actual involvement in the trucking of Australian wheat within Iraq.

AWB Limited

Australian Wheat BoardAWBthe AWB
A report by UN investigator Paul Volcker released in October 2005 found that the Australian Wheat Board, later AWB Limited, was the biggest single source of kickbacks for the Iraqi government.
However, after facing criticism over the humanitarian impacts of the sanctions, the UN from 1995 until late 2003 allowed Iraq to trade oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and other humanitarian needs.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 661

661Resolution 661Iraq Sanctions Committee
The Oil-for-Food Programme was instituted to relieve the extended suffering of civilians as the result of the United Nations' imposition of comprehensive sanctions on Iraq following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990.
Before the Oil-for-Food Programme commenced in 1996, exemptions from the sanctions regime granted by the 661 Committee was the sole legal means for Iraq to import any goods.