Oil spill

oil slickoil spillsoil pollutionspilledspilloilspillslargest oil spillsoil leakoil slicks
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.wikipedia
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Exxon Valdez oil spill

Exxon Valdez'' oil spillExxon Valdezoil spill
Smaller spills have already proven to have a great impact on ecosystems, such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill because of the remoteness of the site or the difficulty of an emergency environmental response.
The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef, 1.5 mi west of Tatitlek, Alaska, at 12:04 a.m.local time and spilled 10.8 e6USgal (or 37,000 metric tonnes) of crude oil over the next few days.

Gulf War oil spill

Gulf Oil Spilloil spills caused during the "Persian Gulf warreleased
The Gulf War oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, resulting from the Gulf War in 1991.

Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Deepwater Horizon'' oil spillBP oil spillGulf oil spill
The quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons (e.g., Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Atlantic Empress, Amoco Cadiz), but volume is a limited measure of damage or impact.
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, oil leak, or oil disaster; the Gulf of Mexico oil spill; and the Macondo blowout) is an industrial disaster that began on April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill, also in the Gulf of Mexico.

SS Atlantic Empress

Atlantic EmpressS.S. ''Atlantic Empress
The quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons (e.g., Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Atlantic Empress, Amoco Cadiz), but volume is a limited measure of damage or impact.
SS Atlantic Empress was a Greek oil tanker that in 1979 collided with the oil tanker Aegean Captain in the Caribbean, and eventually sank, having created the fifth largest oil spill on record and the largest ship-based spill having spilled 287,000 metric tonnes of crude oil into the Caribbean Sea.

Persian Gulf

GulfGulf regionPersian Gulf region
The Persian Gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive reefs (mostly rocky, but also coral), and abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills.

Taylor oil spill

destruction of Taylor Energy's Mississippi Canyon 20-ATaylor Energy
The 2004 Taylor oil spill is an ongoing spill located in the Gulf of Mexico, around 11 mi off the coast of the U.S. state of Louisiana, which resulted from the destruction of a Taylor Energy oil platform during Hurricane Ivan, and it is the longest oil spill in U.S. history.

Mingbulak oil spill

Fergana Valleyoil spill
The Mingbulak oil spill also known as the Fergana Valley oil spill was the worst terrestrial oil spill in the history of Asia.

Tanker (ship)

tankertankersgasoline tanker
Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged vulnerable ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, France, the Sundarbans, Ogoniland, and many other places.
Despite being highly regulated, tankers have been involved in environmental disasters resulting from oil spills.

Lakeview Gusher

It created the largest accidental oil spill in history, lasting 18 months and releasing 9 Moilbbl of crude oil.

Ixtoc I oil spill

Ixtoc IIxtocIxtoc I'' oil spill
On 3 June 1979, the well suffered a blowout resulting in one of the largest oil spills in history.

Waste oil

used oilthe oil was extremely dirtyUsed and oily water management
Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
The containers must be in good condition with no leaks, the tanks/containers must be labeled with the words “used oil”, and there must be a spill prevention plan (or a control and countermeasures plan).

Oil tanker

supertankeroil tankerstanker
Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
Oil tankers have been involved in a number of damaging and high-profile oil spills.

Petroleum

crude oiloilcrude
Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galápagos Islands, France and many other places.

United States Coast Guard

U.S. Coast GuardCoast GuardUS Coast Guard
According to the United States Coast Guard, 35.7% of the volume of oil spilled in the United States from 1991 to 2004 came from tank vessels (ships/barges), 27.6% from facilities and other non-vessels, 19.9% from non-tank vessels, and 9.3% from pipelines; 7.4% from mystery spills.
Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center (NRC) is the sole U.S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, chemical, radiological, biological, and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.

Oil platform

oil rigoil rigsoffshore platform
Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
Offshore oil production involves environmental risks, most notably oil spills from oil tankers or pipelines transporting oil from the platform to onshore facilities, and from leaks and accidents on the platform.

Personal grooming

groomingpreeninggroom
As they preen, birds may ingest the oil coating their feathers, irritating the digestive tract, altering liver function, and causing kidney damage.
During oil spills, animal conservationists that rescue penguins sometimes dress them in knitted sweaters to stop them from preening and thereby ingesting the mineral oil, which is poisonous.

Corexit

Corexit 9500Corexit 9527Corexit EC9500A
A 2012 study found that Corexit dispersant had increased the toxicity of oil by up to 52 times.
Corexit (often styled COREXIT) is a product line of oil dispersants used during oil spill response operations.

Nowruz oil field

Nowruz Field PlatformNowruz oil spills
The Nowruz oil field, in the Persian Gulf, Iran, was the site of several 1983 oil spills.

Water associated fraction

The chemicals from the oil which dissolve in water, and hence are available to bacteria, are those in the water associated fraction of the oil.
Low molecular mass compounds account for much of the toxic nature of hydrocarbon spills.

Gulf of Mexico

GulfGulf CoastMexican Gulf
Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged vulnerable ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, France, the Sundarbans, Ogoniland, and many other places.
The resulting oil slick quickly expanded to cover hundreds of square miles of ocean surface, posing a serious threat to marine life and adjacent coastal wetlands, and to the livelihoods of Gulf Coast shrimpers and fishermen.

Lac-Mégantic rail disaster

Lac-Mégantic derailmentLac-Megantic derailmentLac-Mégantic disaster
The fire resulting from the Lac-Mégantic derailment killed 47 and destroyed half of the town's centre.
The Chaudière River was contaminated by an estimated 100000 L of oil.

Oil skimmer

skimmersskimmingSkimmer
Depending on the specific design they are used for a variety of applications such as oil spill response, as a part of oily water treatment systems, removing oil from machine tool coolant and aqueous parts washers, and collecting fats oils and greases in wastewater treatment in food manufacturing industries.

Hydrophobe

hydrophobichydrophobicityhydrophobic interaction
Hydrophobic materials are used for oil removal from water, the management of oil spills, and chemical separation processes to remove non-polar substances from polar compounds.

Environmental impact of shipping

Ship PollutionEnvironmental issues with shippingacoustic
The environmental impact of shipping includes air pollution, water pollution, acoustic, and oil pollution.

Kuwaiti oil fires

Kuwait oil firesoil well fires700
The Kuwaiti oil fires produced air pollution that caused respiratory distress.
Although scenarios that predicted long-lasting environmental impacts on a global atmospheric level due to the burning oil sources did not transpire, long-lasting ground level oil spill impacts were detrimental to the environment regionally.