Navy Chaplain Milton Gianulis conducts an Easter morning Orthodox Liturgy candlelight service aboard USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75)
Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
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A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic

Old Church Slavonic played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day.

- Old Church Slavonic

Similarly, Old Church Slavonic is incomprehensible to speakers of modern Slavic languages, unless they study it.

- Sacred language

4 related topics

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Official usage of Romanian language in Vojvodina, Serbia

Romanian language

Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 22–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 22–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

Official usage of Romanian language in Vojvodina, Serbia
Distribution of first-language native Romanian speakers by country—Voivodina is an autonomous province of northern Serbia bordering Romania, while Altele means "Other"
Romanian as secondary or foreign language in Central and Eastern Europe
Romanian language in the Romance language family
Romanian's core lexicon (2,581 words); Marius Sala, VRLR (1988)
Neacșu's letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.
A sample of Romanian written in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, which was still in use in the early 19th century
A close shot of some keys with Romanian characters on the keyboard of a laptop

The greater part of its Slavic vocabulary comes from Old Church Slavonic, which was the official written language of Wallachia and Moldavia from the 14th to the 18th century (although not understood by most people), as well as the liturgical language of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

Balto-Slavic language tree.

Slavic languages

The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples or their descendants.

The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples or their descendants.

Balto-Slavic language tree.
Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
Baška tablet, 11th century, Krk, Croatia.
14th-century Novgorodian children were literate enough to send each other letters written on birch bark.
10th–11th century Codex Zographensis, canonical monument of Old Church Slavonic
Map and tree of Slavic languages, according to Kassian and A. Dybo
West Slav tribes in 9th–10th centuries
Linguistic maps of Slavic languages
Map of all areas where the Russian language is the language spoken by the majority of the population.

Old Church Slavonic

Church Slavonic language, variations of Old Church Slavonic with significant replacement of the original vocabulary by forms from the Old East Slavic and other regional forms. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Polish Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, and even some Roman Catholic Churches in Croatia continue to use Church Slavonic as a liturgical language. While not used in modern times, the text of a Church Slavonic Roman Rite Mass survives in Croatia and the Czech Republic, which is best known through Janáček's musical setting of it (the Glagolitic Mass).

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century)

Bible

Collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions.

Collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions.

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century)
Hebrew Bible from 1300. Genesis.
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1619 painting by Valentin de Boulogne
The Rylands fragment P52 verso is the oldest existing fragment of New Testament papyrus. It contains phrases from the Book of John.
Salomé, by Henri Regnault (1870).
A Bible is placed centrally on a Lutheran altar, highlighting its importance
A Torah scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue in Cologne.
Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible in nine lines of Hebrew text, currently housed in the British Museum
Hebrew text of Psalm 1:1–2
The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains almost the whole Book of Isaiah. It dates from the 2nd century BCE.
The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains a portion of a pre-Masoretic Text, specifically the Ten Commandments and the Shema Yisrael prayer.
Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation.
A page from the Gutenberg Bible
The contents page in a complete 80 book King James Bible, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament".
St. Jerome in His Study, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1541. Jerome produced a 4th-century Latin edition of the Bible, known as the Vulgate, that became the Catholic Church's official translation.
Title page from the first Welsh translation of the Bible, 1588. William Morgan (1545–1604)
An early German translation by Martin Luther. His translation of the text into the vernacular was highly influential.
The Tel Dan Stele, Israel Museum. Highlighted in white: the sequence B Y T D W D.
Jean Astruc, often called the "Father of Biblical criticism", at Centre hospitalier universitaire de Toulouse
Old Bible from a Greek monastery
Imperial Bible, or Vienna Coronation Gospels from Wien (Austria), c 1500.
The Kennicott Bible, 1476
A Baroque Bible
The Bible used by Abraham Lincoln for his oath of office during his first inauguration in 1861
American Civil War Era Illustrated Bible
A miniature Bible
1866 Victorian Bible
Shelves of the Bizzell Bible Collection at Bizzell Memorial Library
Detail of Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation (c. 1472–1475) shows the Virgin Mary reading the Bible.
Bible from 1150, from Scriptorium de Chartres, Christ with angels
Blanche of Castile and Louis IX of France Bible, 13th century
Maciejowski Bible, Leaf 37, the 3rd image, Abner (in the centre in green) sends Michal back to David.
Jephthah's daughter laments – Maciejowski Bible (France, ca. 1250)
Coloured version of the Whore of Babylon illustration from Martin Luther's 1534 translation of the Bible
An Armenian Bible, 17th century, illuminated by Malnazar
Fleeing Sodom and Gomorrah, Foster Bible, 19th century
Jonah being swallowed by the fish, Kennicott Bible, 1476

Finally, the rabbis claimed a divine authority for the Hebrew language, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek – even though these languages were the lingua franca of Jews during this period (and Aramaic would eventually be given the status of a sacred language comparable to Hebrew).

The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament.

Church Slavonic

An example of Russian Church Slavonic computer typography

Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ, literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Eastern Orthodox Church in Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia and Croatia.

Church Slavonic represents a later stage of Old Church Slavonic, and is the continuation of the liturgical tradition introduced by two Thessalonian brothers, Saints Cyril and Methodius, in the late 9th century in Nitra, a principal town and religious and scholarly center of Great Moravia (located in present-day Slovakia).