A report on Old Church Slavonic

Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
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A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic

The first Slavic literary language.

- Old Church Slavonic

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Church Slavonic

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Conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Eastern Orthodox Church in Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia and Croatia.

Conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Eastern Orthodox Church in Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia and Croatia.

An example of Russian Church Slavonic computer typography

Church Slavonic represents a later stage of Old Church Slavonic, and is the continuation of the liturgical tradition introduced by two Thessalonian brothers, Saints Cyril and Methodius, in the late 9th century in Nitra, a principal town and religious and scholarly center of Great Moravia (located in present-day Slovakia).

Saint-Tsar Boris I, Equal-to-the-Apostles

Boris I of Bulgaria

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The ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.

The ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.

Saint-Tsar Boris I, Equal-to-the-Apostles
Coin of Boris-Mihail. Knyaz, struck in 852–889.
Bulgaria under rule of Boris I
Depiction in the Madrid Skylitzes of Boris I's baptism.
Depiction in the Manases Chronicle of Boris I' baptism.
Knyaz Boris I meeting the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius

After he abdicated in 889, his eldest son and successor tried to restore the old pagan religion but was deposed by Boris I. During the Council of Preslav which followed that event, the Byzantine clergy was replaced with Bulgarians, and the Greek language was replaced with what is now known as Old Church Slavonic.

Thessaloniki

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Second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of the geographic region of Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

Second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of the geographic region of Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

Inscription reading "To Queen Thessalonike, (Daughter) of Philip", Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki
GDP of the Thessaloniki regional unit 2000–2011
Ancient coin depicting Cassander, son of Antipater, and founder of the city of Thessaloniki
The 4th-century AD Rotunda of Galerius, one of several Roman monuments in the city and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Section of the Walls of Thessaloniki
Church of the Acheiropoietos (5th century) at the city's centre
A mosaic of Saint George in Saint Demetrios Church
Hot chamber of the men's baths in the Bey Hamam (1444).
Demographics of Thessaloniki between 1500-1950
The White Tower of Thessaloniki, on the edge of Nikis Avenue, a prominent Ottoman addition to the city walls, built in 1430 and rebuilt in 1535, and symbol of the city
Constantine I of Greece with George I of Greece and the Hellenic army enter the city.
Allied armies in Thessaloniki, World War I
The 1st Battalion of the Army of National Defence marches on its way to the Macedonian front.
Aerial photograph of the Great Fire of 1917
Registration of the male Jews of Thessaloniki in July 1942, Eleftherias Square. 96% of deported Jews perished in Nazi concentration camps.
Part of Eleftherias Square and Stein mansion during the Axis occupation
Indian troops sweep for mines in Salonika 1944
Thessaloniki's urban and metropolitan areas
Mayor Yiannis Boutaris (2011-19)
The Government House, now the Ministry for Macedonia and Thrace, designed by Vitaliano Poselli in 1891
The Prefecture building (Villa Allatini)
Plan for central Thessaloniki by Ernest Hébrard. Much of the plan can be seen in today's city center.
The old Hotel Astoria on Tsimiski Street, typical beaux-arts architecture of the post-fire architecture boom
A street in Ladadika district
Xirokrini neighbourhood.
The cultural center (including MOMus–Museum of Modern Art–Costakis Collection and two theatres of the National Theatre of Northern Greece), former Catholic Lazarist Monastery (Moni Lazariston).
Villa Mordoch (arch. Xenophon Paionidis) on Vasilissis Olgas Avenue
The church of Saint Demetrius, patron saint of the city, built in the 4th century, is the largest basilica in Greece and one of the city's most prominent Paleochristian monuments.
Panagia Chalkeon church in Thessaloniki (1028 AD), one of the 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the city
The Byzantine Bath of the Upper Town.
The equestrian statue of Alexander the Great on the promenade
Aerial view of the newest section of the promenade (Nea Paralia), which was opened to the public in January 2014
The old building of Banque de Salonique, now Stoa Malakopi
A building of the Bank of Greece
View of the port
The GDP of Thessaloniki in comparison to that of Attica and the rest of the country (2012)
Paths of Jewish immigration to the city
Jewish family of Salonika in 1917
"Jews not welcomed" sign during the Axis occupation
Monastir Synagogue
The building of the Society of Macedonian studies, seat of the National Theatre of Northern Greece.
Thessaloniki Concert Hall
Marina of Aretsou
Part of the coastline of the southeastern suburb of Peraia on the Thermaic Gulf, with views towards Thessaloniki
View of the Museum of Byzantine Culture
View of the Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum (also known as NOESIS) on the road to Thermi
View of the Roman Forum (Ancient Agora)
Olympion Theatre, seat of the International Film Festival
Kaftanzoglio National Stadium
Mosaic of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki in the Church of Saint Demetrius in Thessaloniki
Frappé coffee
Bougatsa, typical Thessalonian treat
Hotel Luxemvourgo on Komninon Street (1924, arch. Eli Modiano)
View of the Makedonia Palace on the promenade
Aerial view of the campus of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (to the right), the largest university in Greece and the Balkans
The old tram lines on Agiou Mina Street
An OASTH bus
Map of the Thessaloniki Metro under construction (Lines 1 and 2), and its planned extensions
Suburban Railway services
Thessaloniki International Airport
New railway station
Road map of Thessaloniki and its suburbs from OpenStreetMap
Part of the ring road (Peripheriaki Odos)
Taxi in Thessaloniki
Commemorative stele in Melbourne

It is the basis for the city's name in other languages: Солѹнъ (Solunŭ) in Old Church Slavonic, סאלוניקו (Saloniko) in Judeo-Spanish, סלוניקי (Saloniki) in Hebrew, سلانیك (Selânik) in Ottoman Turkish and Selânik in modern Turkish, Salonicco in Italian, Solun or Солун in the local and neighboring South Slavic languages, Салоники (Saloníki) in Russian, and Sãrunã in Aromanian.

Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in Russia (1776–1783)

Bulgarians

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Bulgarians (българи, ) are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeastern Europe.

Bulgarians (българи, ) are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeastern Europe.

Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in Russia (1776–1783)
Cyrillic alphabet of the medieval Old Bulgarian language
Map of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870–1913). The Ottomans required a threshold of two thirds of positive votes of the Orthodox population to include a region into this jurisdiction.
Bulgarian peach kompot – non alcoholic clear juice obtained by cooking fruit
Kukeri from the area of Burgas
Girls celebrating Lazaruvane from Gabrа, Sofia Province
Map of A. Scobel, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas, 1908
Distribution of the Balkan peoples in 1911, Encyclopædia Britannica
Ethnic groups in the Balkans and Asia Minor by William R. Shepherd, 1911
Distribution of European peoples in 1914 according to L. Ravenstein
Swiss ethnographic map of Europe published in 1918 by Juozas Gabrys
Percentage of Pomaks by first language according to the 1965 Census excluding Bulgarian
Distribution of Bulgarians in Odessa Oblast, Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of Bulgarians by first language in Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of predominant ethnic groups in Bulgaria according to the 2011 census
Distribution of Bulgarians in Romania according to the 2002 census
Distribution of Bulgarians in Moldova according to the 2004 census
Map of the Bulgarian diaspora in the world (includes people with Bulgarian ancestry or citizenship). 
Bulgaria
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The development of Old Church Slavonic literacy in the country had the effect of preventing the assimilation of the South Slavs into neighbouring cultures and it also stimulated the development of a distinct ethnic identity.

Proto-Slavic language

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Unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all Slavic languages.

Unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all Slavic languages.

This language remains largely unattested, but a late-period variant, representing the late 9th-century dialect spoken around Thessaloniki (Solun) in Macedonia, is attested in Old Church Slavonic manuscripts.

Icon of Saint Clement of Ohrid from the Orthodox Zograf monastery on Mount Athos in Greece, depicted as a disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius.

Clement of Ohrid

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One of the first medieval Bulgarian saints, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs.

One of the first medieval Bulgarian saints, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs.

Icon of Saint Clement of Ohrid from the Orthodox Zograf monastery on Mount Athos in Greece, depicted as a disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius.
Icon of Saint Clement, located in the Mother of God Perybleptos church, Ohrid
Fresco of St. Clement in the Church of St. Athanasius, Kastoria
Southeastern Europe in the late 9th century.
Tomb of Saint Clement within the Church of Saints Clement and Panteleimon, Ohrid, North Macedonia.

Thereafter, the four of them were sent to the Bulgarian capital of Pliska where they were commissioned by Boris I of Bulgaria to instruct the future clergy of the state in the Old Slavonic language.

Statue of Svatopluk on Bratislava Castle, Slovakia

Svatopluk I of Moravia

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Statue of Svatopluk on Bratislava Castle, Slovakia
Statue of Svatopluk I in Loštice, Czech Republic
The ruins of a Moravian fort on Kostolec Hill at Ducové (Slovakia)
The papal letter Scire vos volumus, written in 879 by Pope John VIII to Svatopluk I
Sure and disputed territories of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I (according to modern historians)
The legend of Svatopluk's three wands
Svatopluk I disguised as a monk in the court of Arnulf, King of East Francia (from the 14th-century Chronicle of Dalimil)

Svatopluk I or Svätopluk I, also known as Svatopluk the Great (Latin: Zuentepulc, Zuentibald, Sventopulch, Zvataplug; Old Church Slavic: Свѧтопълкъ and transliterated Svętopъłkъ; Polish: Świętopełk; Greek: Σφενδοπλόκος, Sphendoplókos), was a ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign (870–871, 871–894).

The Freising manuscripts, dating from the late 10th or the early 11th century, are considered the oldest documents in Slovene.

Slovene language

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South Slavic language.

South Slavic language.

The Freising manuscripts, dating from the late 10th or the early 11th century, are considered the oldest documents in Slovene.
A schematic map of Slovene dialects, based on the map by Fran Ramovš and other sources
Vowels of Slovene, from . is not shown.
Tombstone of Jožef Nahtigal in Dobrova with archaic Slovene onikanje in indirect reference. Literal translation "Here lie [počivajo] the honorable Jožef Nahtigal ... they were born [rojeni] ... they died [umerli] ... God grant them [jim] eternal peace and rest."
A schematic map of Slovene dialects, based on the map by Tine Logar, Jakob Rigler and other sources

Like all Slavic languages, Slovene traces its roots to the same proto-Slavic group of languages that produced Old Church Slavonic.

Early Cyrillic alphabet

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Writing system that was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the late 9th century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Slavic people living near the Byzantine Empire in South East and Central Europe.

Writing system that was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the late 9th century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Slavic people living near the Byzantine Empire in South East and Central Europe.

Codex Suprasliensis
Gospels of Tsar Ivan Alexander
Bulgar translation of Manasses chronicle
Mostich tomb stone
ℓ 1
ℓ 150
ℓ 152
ℓ 179 Old Testament, Genesis
ℓ 183 folio 2
ℓ 296 folio 6 verso
Ostromir Gospels
Sava's book
Khitrovo Gospels
Miroslav Gospel
Arkhangelsk Gospel
Andronikov Gospels
Capital letters of the early Cyrillic alphabet

It was developed in the Preslav Literary School in the capital city of the First Bulgarian Empire in order to write the Old Church Slavonic language.

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Yer

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Either of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets, ъ and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).

Either of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets, ъ and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).

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They originally represented phonemically the "ultra-short" vowels in Slavic languages, including Old Church Slavonic, and are collectively known as the yers.