A report on Old Church Slavonic

Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
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A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic

The first Slavic literary language.

- Old Church Slavonic

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Slavic studies

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Academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.

Academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.

Other languages: Serbo-Croatian, Upper Sorbian, Lower Sorbian, Kashubian, Polabian, Rusyn, Old Church Slavonic

Pan-Slavic postcard depicting Saints Cyril and Methodius, the "Apostles to the Slavs"

Christianization of the Slavs

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The Slavs were Christianized in waves from the 7th to 12th century, though the process of replacing old Slavic religious practices began as early as the 6th century.

The Slavs were Christianized in waves from the 7th to 12th century, though the process of replacing old Slavic religious practices began as early as the 6th century.

Pan-Slavic postcard depicting Saints Cyril and Methodius, the "Apostles to the Slavs"
Seal of prince Strojimir of Serbia, from the late 9th century - one of the oldest artifacts on the Christianization of the Slavs

Saints Cyril and Methodius ( 860–885) are attributed as "Apostles to the Slavs", having introduced the Byzantine-Slavic rite (Old Slavonic liturgy) and Glagolitic alphabet, the oldest known Slavic alphabet and basis for the Early Cyrillic alphabet.

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century)

Bible

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Collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions.

Collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions.

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century)
Hebrew Bible from 1300. Genesis.
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1619 painting by Valentin de Boulogne
The Rylands fragment P52 verso is the oldest existing fragment of New Testament papyrus. It contains phrases from the Book of John.
Salomé, by Henri Regnault (1870).
A Bible is placed centrally on a Lutheran altar, highlighting its importance
A Torah scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue in Cologne.
Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible in nine lines of Hebrew text, currently housed in the British Museum
Hebrew text of Psalm 1:1–2
The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains almost the whole Book of Isaiah. It dates from the 2nd century BCE.
The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains a portion of a pre-Masoretic Text, specifically the Ten Commandments and the Shema Yisrael prayer.
Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation.
A page from the Gutenberg Bible
The contents page in a complete 80 book King James Bible, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament".
St. Jerome in His Study, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1541. Jerome produced a 4th-century Latin edition of the Bible, known as the Vulgate, that became the Catholic Church's official translation.
Title page from the first Welsh translation of the Bible, 1588. William Morgan (1545–1604)
An early German translation by Martin Luther. His translation of the text into the vernacular was highly influential.
The Tel Dan Stele, Israel Museum. Highlighted in white: the sequence B Y T D W D.
Jean Astruc, often called the "Father of Biblical criticism", at Centre hospitalier universitaire de Toulouse
Old Bible from a Greek monastery
Imperial Bible, or Vienna Coronation Gospels from Wien (Austria), c 1500.
The Kennicott Bible, 1476
A Baroque Bible
The Bible used by Abraham Lincoln for his oath of office during his first inauguration in 1861
American Civil War Era Illustrated Bible
A miniature Bible
1866 Victorian Bible
Shelves of the Bizzell Bible Collection at Bizzell Memorial Library
Detail of Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation (c. 1472–1475) shows the Virgin Mary reading the Bible.
Bible from 1150, from Scriptorium de Chartres, Christ with angels
Blanche of Castile and Louis IX of France Bible, 13th century
Maciejowski Bible, Leaf 37, the 3rd image, Abner (in the centre in green) sends Michal back to David.
Jephthah's daughter laments – Maciejowski Bible (France, ca. 1250)
Coloured version of the Whore of Babylon illustration from Martin Luther's 1534 translation of the Bible
An Armenian Bible, 17th century, illuminated by Malnazar
Fleeing Sodom and Gomorrah, Foster Bible, 19th century
Jonah being swallowed by the fish, Kennicott Bible, 1476
Hebrew-Samaritan script
Creation of Light, by Gustave Doré.
Song of Songs (Das Hohelied Salomos), No. 11 by Egon Tschirch, 1923

Notable pseudepigraphal works include the Books of Enoch such as 1 Enoch, 2 Enoch, which survives only in Old Slavonic, and 3 Enoch, surviving in Hebrew of the c. 5th to 6th century CE.

Macedonia (region)

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Geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

The kingdom of Macedon with its provinces
Borders of Macedonia, based on the Roman province, according to different authors (1843–1927)
The maximum range of modern geographical region of Macedonia shown in blue (not generally accepted). The region is divided by the national boundaries of Greece (Greek Macedonia), the Republic of North Macedonia, Bulgaria (Blagoevgrad Province), Albania (Mala Prespa and Golo Brdo), Serbia (Prohor Pčinjski), and Kosovo (Gora).
Distribution of ethnic groups in Macedonia in 1892 (Deutsche Rundschau für Geographie und Statistik – German Bevieiofor Geography and Statistics)
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1910 (Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York)
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1918 (National Geographic)
Saint Gregory Palamas Cathedral in Thessaloniki
Monasteries of the Mount Athos in Macedonia (Greece)
Expansion of Macedon into a kingdom
Early Roman Macedonia (illustrated here encompassing Paeonia & south Illyria) and environs, from Droysens Historical Atlas, 1886
The late Roman Diocese of Macedonia, including the provinces of Macedonia Prima, Macedonia Secunda or Salutaris (periodically abolished), Thessalia, Epirus vetus, Epirus nova, Achaea, and Crete.
Contemporary Ottoman map or the Salonica Vilayet
Map of Part of Macedonia (Carte d'une partie de la Macedoine) by Piere Lapie (1826).
Evolution of the territory of Greece. The 'Macedonia' shown is the Greek province.
Map of the region contested by Serbia and Bulgaria and subject to the arbitration of the Russian Tsar
Ethnic composition of the Balkans according to Atlas Général Vidal-Lablanche, Paris 1890–1894. Henry Robert Wilkinson stated that this ethnic map, as most ethnic maps of that time, contained a pro-Bulgarian ethnographic view of Macedonia.
Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War (1912–1913)
Macedonia's division in 1913

In the early 860s Saints Cyril and Methodius, two Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, created the first Slavic Glagolitic alphabet in which the Old Church Slavonic language was first transcribed, and are thus commonly referred to as the apostles of the Slavic world.

Pope Stephen V

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The bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from September 885 to his death.

The bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from September 885 to his death.

However, due to the influence of the German clergy, Stephen forbade the use of the Slavonic liturgy.

Kiev Missal

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Folio 7r.
The third folio of Kiev Missal

The Kiev Missal (or Kiev Fragments or Kiev Folios; scholarly abbreviation Ki) is a seven-folio Glagolitic Old Church Slavonic canon manuscript containing parts of the Roman-rite liturgy.

Proto-Balto-Slavic language

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Reconstructed hypothetical proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European (PIE).

Reconstructed hypothetical proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European (PIE).

PIE > Pre-Balto-Slavic *eźHom > (Winter's law) *ēˀźHom > Proto-Balto-Slavic *ēˀźun > Common Slavic *(j)azъ́ > OCS azъ, Slovene jaz.

The borders of the Kutmichevitsa or Devol Comitatus during 9th-10th centuries.

Kutmichevitsa

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Administrative region of the Bulgarian Empire during 9th-11th cent., corresponding roughly with the northwestern part of the region of Macedonia and the southern part of Albania, broadly taken to be the area included in the triangle Saloniki-Skopje-Vlora.

Administrative region of the Bulgarian Empire during 9th-11th cent., corresponding roughly with the northwestern part of the region of Macedonia and the southern part of Albania, broadly taken to be the area included in the triangle Saloniki-Skopje-Vlora.

The borders of the Kutmichevitsa or Devol Comitatus during 9th-10th centuries.
The Berat Castle, known during the Bulgarian rule as the Belgrad Castle was the fortress of one of the most important towns in Kutmichevitsa, Belgrad (White Town).

It had an important impact on the formation, endorsement and development of the Old Church Slavonic and culture.

Dual (grammatical number)

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Grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

Grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

The best evidence for the dual among ancient Indo-European languages can be found in Old Indo-Iranian (Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan), Homeric Greek and Old Church Slavonic, where its use was obligatory for all inflected categories including verbs, nouns, adjectives, pronouns and some numerals.

Codex Marianus

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Codex Marianus

The Codex Marianus is an Old Church Slavonic fourfold Gospel Book written in Glagolitic script, dated to the beginning of the 11th century, which is (along with Codex Zographensis), one of the oldest manuscript witnesses to the Old Church Slavonic language, one of the two fourfold gospels being part of the Old Church Slavonic canon.