Old East Slavic

Old RussianOld East Slavic languageOld SlavicEast SlavicOESl.Old Russian literatureOld SlavonicChancery RuthenianEastEast Slavic literature
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus', from which later the Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian languages evolved.wikipedia
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Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus', from which later the Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian languages evolved.
Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward.

Ukrainian language

UkrainianUkrainian-languagemodern Ukrainian language
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus', from which later the Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian languages evolved.
Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language to the Old East Slavic of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus'.

Belarusian language

BelarusianBelorussianbe
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus', from which later the Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian languages evolved.
Its predecessor stage is known as Ruthenian (14th to 17th centuries), in turn descended from Old East Slavic (10th to 13th centuries).

Kievan Rus'

Kievan RusRus'Rus
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus', from which later the Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian languages evolved. The political unification of the region into the state called Kievan Rus', from which modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine trace their origins, occurred approximately a century before the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the establishment of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and literary language.
During its existence, Kievan Rus' was known as the "land of the Rus'" (Old East Slavic: Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, from the ethnonym ; Greek: Ῥῶς; Arabic: الروس ), in Greek as Ῥωσία, in Old French as Russie, Rossie, in Latin as Russia (with local German spelling variants Ruscia and Ruzzia), and from the 12th century also.

History of the Russian language

Pre-reform RussianOld Russian1964 proposed reform of Russian language
When after the end of the 'Tatar yoke' the territory of former Kievan Rus was divided between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the medieval Rus' principality Grand Principality of Moscow, two separate literary traditions emerged in these states, Ruthenian in the west and medieval Russian in the east.
Up to the 14th century, ancestors of the modern Russians (who likewise called themselves ruskiye) spoke dialects of the Old East Slavic language, related to the dialects of other East Slavs.

Ruthenian language

RuthenianOld Belarusian languageOld Belarusian
When after the end of the 'Tatar yoke' the territory of former Kievan Rus was divided between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the medieval Rus' principality Grand Principality of Moscow, two separate literary traditions emerged in these states, Ruthenian in the west and medieval Russian in the east.
Scholars do not agree whether Ruthenian was a separate language, or a Western dialect or set of dialects of Old East Slavic, but it is agreed that Ruthenian has a close genetic relationship with it.

Old Novgorod dialect

Old NovgorodianOld Novgorodbirch-bark scroll
The samples of birch-bark writing excavated in Novgorod have provided crucial information about the pure tenth-century vernacular in North-West Russia, almost entirely free of Church Slavonic influence.
Old Novgorod dialect (древненовгородский диалект; also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak to describe the dialect found in the Old East Slavic birch bark writings ("berestyanaya gramota").

Cyrillic script

CyrillicCyrillic alphabetUzbek Cyrillic
Although the Glagolitic alphabet was briefly introduced, as witnessed by church inscriptions in Novgorod, it was soon entirely superseded by the Cyrillic.
Cyrillic script spread throughout the East Slavic and some South Slavic territories, being adopted for writing local languages, such as Old East Slavic.

Primary Chronicle

Russian Primary ChronicleTale of Bygone YearsNestor Chronicle
Surviving literary monuments include the legal code Justice of the Rus, a corpus of hagiography and homily, the epic Song of Igor and the earliest surviving manuscript of the Primary Chronicle – the Laurentian codex of 1377.
The work's name originates from the opening sentence of the text, which reads: “These are the narratives of bygone years regarding the origin of the land of Rus’ (Old East Slavic: Рѹсь), the first princes of Kyiv, and from what source the land of Rus’ had its beginning.” The work is considered to be a fundamental source in the interpretation of the history of the East Slavs.

East Slavic languages

East SlavicEast Slavic languageEastern Slavic
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus', from which later the Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian languages evolved.
When the common Old East Slavic language became separated from the ancient Slavic tongue common to all Slavs is difficult to ascertain, though in the 12th century the common language of Rus' is still referred to in contemporary writing as Slavic.

Kiev

KyivKiev, UkraineKyiv, Ukraine
The earliest dated specimen of Old East Slavic (or, rather, of Church Slavonic with pronounced East Slavic interference) must be considered the written Slovo o zakone i blagodati, by Hilarion, metropolitan of Kiev.
The spelling Kiev was derived from the Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ (Cyrillic: Кꙑєвъ).

Book of Veles

The book of Wles
The Book of Veles, said to have been found during the Russian civil war and to have disappeared in WWII, would, if genuine, provide about the only surviving pre-Christian East Slavic literary monument.
The book is written in a language using for the most part Slavic roots and different affixes found also in old East Slavic.

Yer

ЪЪ ъyers
Early language; fall of the yers in progress or arguably complete (several words end with a consonant; кнѧжит "to rule" < кънѧжити, modern Uk княжити, R княжить, B княжыць).
Pre-reform Russian orthography and texts in Old East Slavic and in Old Church Slavonic called the letter "back yer".

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
The political unification of the region into the state called Kievan Rus', from which modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine trace their origins, occurred approximately a century before the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the establishment of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and literary language.
Written examples of Old East Slavic (Old Russian) are attested from the 10th century onwards.

Relationship of Cyrillic and Glagolitic scripts

Relationship of Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabetsstrokes and incisions
Despite some suggestive archaeological finds and a corroboration by the tenth-century monk Chernorizets Hrabar that ancient Slavs wrote in "[[Relationship of Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets#Chernorizets Hrabar.27s account|strokes and incisions]]", the exact nature of this system is unknown.
Therefore, scholars have generally rejected the connections of the Rus' referred here with Eastern Slavs, with a few highly nationalistic minority still maintaining a view that Constantine indeed found and Old East Slavic text, and that the man he encountered spoke that language.

Vladimir II Monomakh

Vladimir MonomakhVladimir IIVladimir Monomach
A curious monument of old Slavonic times is the Pouchenie (Instruction), written by Vladimir Monomakh for the benefit of his sons.
Vladimir II Monomakh (Old East Slavic: Володимѣръ Мономахъ, Volodimer Monomakh; Christian name: Vasiliy, or Basileios) (1053 – 19 May 1125) reigned as Grand Prince of Kievan Rus' from 1113 to 1125.

Igor Svyatoslavich

Igor SviatoslavichIgorPrince Igor
We now come to the famous Lay of Igor's Campaign, which narrates the expedition of Igor Svyatoslavich, prince of Novhorod-Siverskyi against the Cumans.
Prince Igor Svyatoslavich the Brave (Old East Slavic: Игорь Святъславичь, Igorĭ Svjatŭslavičĭ; Игорь Святославич, Igor Svyatoslavich; Ігор Святославич, Ihor Svyatoslavych; Old Norse: Ingvar Sveinaldsson) (Novhorod-Siverskyi, April 3 / 10, 1151 – the spring of 1201 / December 29, 1202 ) was a Rus’ prince (a member of the Rurik dynasty).

Cumans

CumanCuman peoplePolovtsy
We now come to the famous Lay of Igor's Campaign, which narrates the expedition of Igor Svyatoslavich, prince of Novhorod-Siverskyi against the Cumans.
Polovtsy or Polovec is often said to be derived from the Old East Slavic polovŭ "yellow; pale" by the Russians – all meaning "blond".

Grand Duchy of Moscow

MuscovyMuscoviteMuscovite Russia
When after the end of the 'Tatar yoke' the territory of former Kievan Rus was divided between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the medieval Rus' principality Grand Principality of Moscow, two separate literary traditions emerged in these states, Ruthenian in the west and medieval Russian in the east.

Novhorod-Siverskyi

Novgorod-SeverskyNovhorod-SiverskyNovgorod-Seversk
We now come to the famous Lay of Igor's Campaign, which narrates the expedition of Igor Svyatoslavich, prince of Novhorod-Siverskyi against the Cumans.
One of the numerous campaigns of local princes against the Cumans produced the great monument of early East Slavic literature, the Tale of Igor's Campaign.

List of Latvian words borrowed from Old East Slavic

This is a list of Latvian words borrowed from Old East Slavic (or its dialects where particularly ts–ch are merged) during 8th–13th centuries.

The Tale of Igor's Campaign

Tale of Igor's CampaignLay of Igor's CampaignSlovo o Polku Igoreve
Surviving literary monuments include the legal code Justice of the Rus, a corpus of hagiography and homily, the epic Song of Igor and the earliest surviving manuscript of the Primary Chronicle – the Laurentian codex of 1377. We now come to the famous Lay of Igor's Campaign, which narrates the expedition of Igor Svyatoslavich, prince of Novhorod-Siverskyi against the Cumans.

Izmail Sreznevsky

Срезневский И. И.
The earliest attempts to compile a comprehensive lexicon of Old East Slavic were undertaken by Alexander Vostokov and Izmail Sreznevsky in the nineteenth century.
In 1847 Sreznevsky moved to St. Petersburg, where he applied himself to the task of preparing a comprehensive dictionary of the Old East Slavic.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
East Slavic is generally thought to converge to one Old Russian or Old East Slavonic language, which existed until at least the 12th century.

Yaroslav the Wise

Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslavYaroslav I
The early laws of Rus’ present many features of interest, such as the Russkaya Pravda of Yaroslav the Wise, which is preserved in the chronicle of Novgorod; the date is between 1018 and 1072.
Hilarion's discourse on Yaroslav and his father Vladimir is frequently cited as the first work of Old East Slavic literature.