Old French

Map of France in 1180, at the height of the feudal system.
The possessions of the French king are in light blue, vassals to the French king in green, Angevin possessions in red. Shown in white is the Holy Roman Empire to the east, the western fringes of which, including Upper Burgundy and Lorraine, were also part of the Old French areal.
Distribution of the modern langue d'oïl (shades of green) and of Franco-Provençal dialects (shades of blue)

The language spoken in most of the northern half of France from approximately the 8th to the 14th centuries.

- Old French

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Anglo-Norman language

Dialect of Old Norman French that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in Great Britain and Ireland during the Anglo-Norman period.

According to one study, about 28% of English vocabulary comes from French, including Anglo-French (green). Note that such percentages vary greatly depending on what amount of rare and technical words are included in the calculation.

Other followers spoke varieties of the Picard language or western registers of general Old French.

Provençal dialect

Variety of Occitan spoken by people in Provence and parts of Drôme.

The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

Provençal is also the customary name given to the older version of the Occitan language used by the troubadours of medieval literature, when Old French or the langue d'oïl was limited to the northern areas of France.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

Crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.

The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states in the context of the Near East in 1135.
After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states in the context of the Near East in 1135.
The funeral of Baldwin I from the book Les Passages d'outremer faits par les Français contre les Turcs depuis Charlemagne jusqu'en 1462.
Depiction of Crusaders from a 1922 edition of Petit Larousse
The Tower of David in Jerusalem as it appears today
Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, who became a close ally of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
An idealized twelfth-century map of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The tomb of Baldwin V on an 18th-century drawing by Elzear Horn
17th-century interpretation of Guy of Lusignan (right) being held captive by Saladin (left), clad in a traditional (Islamic) royal garment, painted by Jan Lievens.
The Near East, c. 1190, at the outset of the Third Crusade.
Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani (14th century).
Coronation of Maria of Montferrat and John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem and Latin Emperor of Constantinople
Krak des Chevaliers, Syria. UNESCO World Heritage Site
Crusaders coin, Acre, 1230.
Crusaders coin, Acre, circa 1230.
Crusader coins of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Left: Denier in European style with Holy Sepulchre (1162–75). Center: Kufic gold bezant (1140–80). Right: gold bezant with Christian symbol (1250s). Gold coins were first copied dinars and bore Kufic script, but after 1250 Christian symbols were added following Papal complaints (British Museum).
Main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Melisende Psalter Folio 9v - The Harrowing of Hell

The French Crusaders also brought the French language to the Levant, thus making Old French the lingua franca of the Crusader states.

French language

Romance language of the Indo-European family.

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries
Distribution of native French speakers in 6 countries in 2021
French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in lighter pink are those where 6–12% of the population speaks French at home; medium pink, 12–18%; darker pink, over 18%. French-based creole languages are not included.
Town sign in Standard Arabic and French at the entrance of Rechmaya in Lebanon
A 500-CFP franc (€4.20; US$5.00) banknote, used in French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna
Varieties of the French language in the world

The language's early forms include Old French and Middle French.


Gallo-Roman theatre in Lillebonne
Bayeux Tapestry (Scene 23): Harold II swearing oath on holy relics to William the Conqueror
Norman possessions in the 12th century
Joan of Arc burning at the stake in the city of Rouen, painting by Jules Eugène Lenepveu
Allied invasion of Normandy, D-Day, 1944
The medieval island of Mont-Saint-Michel, the most visited monument in Normandy
The Arche and the Aiguille of the cliffs of Étretat
A typical Norman thatched building. This is now a village hall
The Seine in Les Andelys
The Bresle
Historic photograph of the Caserne Jeanne d'Arc in Rouen, today seat of the Norman regional assembly
Half-timbered houses in Rouen
A Norman style construction in Deauville
Normande cow
Cider from Normandy
Wace presents his Roman de Rou to Henry II, Illustration 1824
Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol – Madame Monet and Her Son, 1875
Robert Antoine Pinchon, Un après-midi à l'Ile aux Cerises, Rouen, oil on canvas, 50 x 61.2 cm
Rouen Cathedral
"Two-leopard" version, which is the main one.
"Three-leopard" version
Nordic Cross version
"Two-leopard" flag of Sark
Coat of arms of the Duchy of Normandy
Coat of arms of Guernsey
Coat of arms of Jersey
Mont Saint-Michel
Château Gaillard
Le Havre
Port Racine
Half-timbered houses in Rouen
Château d'Ételan (1494)
Decorated boats in Honfleur harbour
Rouen Cathedral by Claude Monet
World War II 15 cm TbtsK C/36 German coastal gun.
Pegasus Bridge
The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial near Colleville-sur-Mer

Normandy (Normandie ; ; from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical and cultural region in Northwestern Europe, roughly coextensive with the historical Duchy of Normandy.

Norman language

Norman or Norman French (Normaund, Normand, Guernésiais: Normand, Jèrriais: Nouormand) is, depending on classification, either a French dialect or a Romance language which can be classified as one of the Oïl languages along with French, Picard and Walloon.

A bar named in Norman

Norman French preserves a number of Old French words which have been lost in Modern French.

Middle French

The area of langues d'oïl can be seen in shades of green and yellow

the French language became clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages, which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of Old French (l'ancien français)

English Channel

Arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates Southern England from northern France and links to the southern part of the North Sea by the Strait of Dover at its northeastern end.

Osborne House, the summer retreat of Queen Victoria on the Isle of Wight. Starting from the late 18th century, settlements on and around the English Channel coastline in England grew rapidly into thriving seaside resorts, bolstered by their association with royalty and the middle and upper classes.
Map of the channel area with French nomenclature
Map of the English Channel
The Strait of Dover viewed from France, looking towards England. The white cliffs of Dover on the English coast are visible from France on a clear day.
Three French river mouths. Top to bottom: the Somme, the Authie and the Canche
Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum ca. 20,000 years ago
The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century around the North Sea. The red area is the distribution of the dialect Old West Norse, the orange area Old East Norse, and the green area the other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility.
The Hermitage of St Helier lies in the bay off Saint Helier and is accessible on foot at low tide.
Landing in England scene from the Bayeux Tapestry, depicting ships coming in and horses landing
The Spanish Armada off the English coast in 1588
The Battle of Quiberon Bay which ended the French invasion plans in 1759
British radar facilities during the Battle of Britain 1940
150 mm Second World War German gun emplacement in Normandy
As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands, such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey.
The Spinnaker (observation) Tower, Portsmouth Harbour
The walled city of Saint-Malo was a stronghold of corsairs.
Kelham's Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language (1779), defining Law French, a language historically used in English law courts
The beach of Le Havre and a part of the rebuilt city
Automatic identification system display showing traffic in the Channel in 2006
The Mont Saint-Michel is one of the most visited and recognisable landmarks on the English Channel.
Zapata on his Flyboard Air.

The word channel was first recorded in Middle English in the 13th century and was borrowed from Old French chanel (a variant form of chenel 'canal').


One of the three regions of Belgium—along with Flanders and Brussels.

The Sequence of Saint Eulalia, the oldest surviving text written in what would become Old French, likely originated in or near Wallonia.
Baptismal font of Renier de Huy, an example of Mosan art and of medieval Walloon brass working expertise
The Lion's Mound commemorates the Battle of Waterloo, fought in present-day Wallonia. Belgium was united with the Netherlands following the Napoleonic Wars.
The boat lifts on the old Canal du Centre were first opened in 1888 and are now a World Heritage Site.
Mons fusillade on 17 April 1893
Coalmining and steelmaking industrial areas in Belgium. The sillon industriel is the blue area along the Meuse and Sambre.
The natural regions of Belgium
View of Charleroi
View of Liège with the Meuse
View of Namur with the Sambre
Steelmaking along the Meuse at Ougrée, near Liège, on the sillon industriel
The word spa comes from the healing hot springs of Spa in the Ardennes. Tourism is an important part of the economy of Wallonia.
Urban blight in Damprémy near Charleroi
Elio Di Rupo is the Minister-President of Wallonia since 2019.
The Parliament of Wallonia in Namur (in pink), at a symbolic place at the confluence of the Meuse and Sambre rivers. Two-thirds of the population of Wallonia lives along the Sambre and Meuse valley.
A red rooster is the main symbol of Wallonia
A linguistic map of Wallonia. Note that in all areas, except the German-speaking part, French is currently the dominant language.
Traditional puppets (Charlemagne Tchantchès) of an (also) avant-garde theater linking French language and Walloon language literature
Herri Met de Blès, Landscape with the Fire of Sodom, 21.5 x 33 cm, c. 1526–1550, Musée des Arts anciens du Namurois, Namur. This landscape is similar to the Meuse between Dinant and Namur
Guillaume Dufay (left), with Gilles Binchois
Dardenne Brothers
The dragon and the white men of the Ducasse de Mons
The Trappist beer Orval, with a branded glass
Brussels South Charleroi Airport
Namur Railway Station
Charleroi Pre-metro
TEC Bus in Liège

Literary Latin, which was taught in schools, lost its hegemony during the 13th century and was replaced by Old French.


Religious discourse or oration by a preacher or other member of clergy.

A Roadside Sermon by John Pettie
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1877
A Reformed Christian minister preaching from a pulpit, 1968
Martin Luther Preaching to Faithful (1561)

The word sermon comes from a Middle English word which was derived from Old French, which in turn originates from the Latin word sermō meaning 'discourse.' A sermonette is a short sermon (usually associated with television broadcasting, as stations would present a sermonette before signing off for the night).