Old Norse

NorseOld IcelandicOld West NorseOld East NorseOld ScandinavianOld Norse languageONOld Norse-IcelandicWest NorseNorse language
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.wikipedia
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Scandinavia

Scandinavian countriesScandinavianNordic
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.
The majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who originally inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.

Faroese language

FaroeseFaeroeseOld Faroese
Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese (both inherited cases from the language), Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility. The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish.
It is one of five languages descended from Old West Norse spoken in the Middle Ages, the others being Norwegian, Icelandic, and the extinct Norn and Greenlandic Norse.

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese (both inherited cases from the language), Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility. The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish.
Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Sweden

SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden.
Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi).

Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese (both inherited cases from the language), Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility. The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish.
Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIceland
Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese (both inherited cases from the language), Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility. The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish.
Since the written language has not changed much, Icelanders are able to read classic Old Norse literature created in the 10th through 13th centuries (such as the Eddas and sagas) with relative ease.

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden.
According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was originally norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, and contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" (from Old Norse suðr) for (Germany), and austrvegr "eastern way" (from austr) for the Baltic.

Danish language

DanishDanish-languageDansk
Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese (both inherited cases from the language), Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility. The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish.
Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples who lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Old Norwegian

NorwegianMedieval NordicOld Norwegian Grammar
Old Icelandic was very close to Old Norwegian, and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect, which was also spoken in settlements in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and northwest England, and in Norse settlements in Normandy.
Old Norwegian (gammelnorsk and gam(m)alnorsk), also called Norwegian Norse, is an early form of the Norwegian language that was spoken between the 11th and 14th century; it is a transitional stage between Old West Norse and Middle Norwegian, and also Old Norn and Old Faroese.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Old Norse also had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots, which contain many Old Norse loanwords.
The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), and to a greater extent by Latin and French.

Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
Old Icelandic was very close to Old Norwegian, and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect, which was also spoken in settlements in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and northwest England, and in Norse settlements in Normandy.
Old Norse entirely displaced Gaelic in the Northern Isles.

Shetland

Shetland IslandsShetland IslesShetlands
The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish.
The Old Norse origin of this phrase is likely from the Norwegian provincial laws, such as the Frostathing Law.

Rus' people

Rusthe RusNormanist theory
Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Finnish, Latvian and Estonian also have a number of Norse loanwords; the words Rus and Russia, according to one theory, may be named after the Rus' people, a Norse tribe; see Rus (name), probably from present-day east-central Sweden.
The Rus people (Old East Slavic: Рѹсь; Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian: Русь ; Old Norse: Garðar; Ῥῶς (Rhos)) are generally understood in English-language scholarship as ethnically or ancestrally Scandinavian people trading and raiding on the river-routes between the Baltic and the Black Seas from around the eighth to eleventh centuries AD.

Orkney

Orkney IslandsOrkneysOrkney Isles
The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish.
Norwegian settlers arriving from the late ninth century reinterpreted orc as the Old Norse orkn "seal" and added "islands" to the end, so the name became Orkneyjar "Seal Islands".

Prose Edda

Younger EddaEddaSnorra Edda
This can be determined by their distinction within the 12th-century First Grammatical Treatise but not within the early 13th-century Prose Edda.
The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland during the early 13th century.

North Germanic languages

ScandinavianScandinavian languagesNorth Germanic
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.
After the Old Norse period, the North Germanic languages developed into an East Scandinavian branch, consisting of Danish and Swedish; and, secondly, a West Scandinavian branch, consisting of Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic and, thirdly, an Old Gutnish branch.

Old Gutnish

Archaic GutnishGutnishvariety
Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish.
It shows sufficient differences from the Old West Norse and Old East Norse dialects that it is considered to be a separate branch.

Vinland

North AmericaVínlandAmerica
In the 11th century, Old Norse was the most widely spoken European language, ranging from Vinland in the West to the Volga River in the East.
The etymology of the Old Norse root, vin- is disputed; while it has usually been assumed to be "wine", some scholars give credence to the homophone vin, meaning "pasture" or "meadow".

Scots language

ScotsLowland ScotsScottish
Old Norse also had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots, which contain many Old Norse loanwords.
It began to further diverge from the Middle English of Northumbria due to twelfth and thirteenth century immigration of Scandinavian-influenced Middle English-speakers from the North and Midlands of England.

First Grammatical Treatise

The First Grammatical Treatise
This can be determined by their distinction within the 12th-century First Grammatical Treatise but not within the early 13th-century Prose Edda. They were noted in the First Grammatical Treatise, and otherwise might have remained unknown.
The First Grammatical Treatise (Fyrsta málfræðiritgerðin) is a 12th-century work on the phonology of the Old Norse or Old Icelandic language.

Old Norse morphology

genitive of ''sygnirinflections of Old Norseinn
Strong verbs ablaut the lemma's nucleus to derive the past forms of the verb.
Old Norse has three categories of verbs (strong, weak, & present-preterite) and two categories of nouns (strong, weak).

Younger Futhark

short-twig runeslong-branch runesrunic
Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark, runic Old Norse was originally written with the Younger Futhark, which had only 16 letters.
The reduction, somewhat paradoxically, happened at the same time as phonetic changes that led to a greater number of different phonemes in the spoken language, when Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse.

Elfdalian

Älvdalska ElfdalianDalacarlia dialects
The nasal vowels, also noted in the First Grammatical Treatise, are assumed to have been lost in most dialects by this time (but notably they are retained in Elfdalian).
Like all other modern North Germanic languages, Elfdalian developed from Old Norse, a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age until about 1300.

Viking expansion

Viking invasionsViking raidsVikings
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.
The language of Normandy heavily reflected the Danish influence, as many words (especially ones pertaining to seafaring) were borrowed from Old Norse or Old Danish.

Names of Rus', Russia and Ruthenia

RusRussian landsRus' (name)
Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Finnish, Latvian and Estonian also have a number of Norse loanwords; the words Rus and Russia, according to one theory, may be named after the Rus' people, a Norse tribe; see Rus (name), probably from present-day east-central Sweden.
]]According to the most prominent theory, the name Rus', like the Finnish name for Sweden (Ruotsi), is derived from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" (rods-) as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, and that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen (the rowing crews) or Roden, as it was known in earlier times.