Old Persian

PersianOld Persian languageancient Persian[OPancient Persian scriptits oldest attested formlanguageO.Pers.Old Persian cuneiformOld Persian grammar
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).wikipedia
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Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription (dated to 525 BCE).
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as (from Old Persian 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿 ), meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran that is today defined as Fars.

Armenia

ArmenianRepublic of ArmeniaARM
Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription (dated to 525 BCE).
The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription (515 BC) as Armina.

Lake Urmia

UrmiaUrmia LakeLake Urumiyeh
In these records of the 9th century BCE, Parsuwash (along with Matai, presumably Medians) are first mentioned in the area of Lake Urmia in the records of Shalmaneser III.
Its Old Persian name was Chichast, meaning "glittering", a reference to the glittering mineral particles suspended in the water of the lake and found along its shores.

Armenians

ArmenianArmenian peopleArmenian descent
He relates that the Armenian people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.
In his trilingual Behistun Inscription dated to 517 BC, Darius I the Great of Persia refers to Urashtu (in Babylonian) as Armina (in Old Persian; Armina and Harminuya (in Elamite).

Persepolis Administrative Archives

Persepolis Fortification ArchivePersepolis Fortification TabletsPersepolis Fortification Project
Recent research (2007) into the vast Persepolis Fortification Archive at the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago have unearthed Old Persian tablets, which suggest Old Persian was a written language in use for practical recording and not only for royal display.

Artaxerxes II of Persia

Artaxerxes IIArtaxerxesArtaxerxes II Mnemon
By the 4th century BCE, the late Achaemenid period, the inscriptions of Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III differ enough from the language of Darius' inscriptions to be called a "pre-Middle Persian," or "post-Old Persian."
Greek authors gave him the epithet "Mnemon" (, in Old Persian: abiataka), meaning "remembering; having a good memory".

Median language

MedianMedicMedean king
Also, as Old Persian contains many words from another extinct Iranian language, Median, according to P. O. Skjærvø it is probable that Old Persian had already been spoken before formation of the Achaemenid Empire and was spoken during most of the first half of the first millennium BCE.
Median is attested only by numerous loanwords in Old Persian.

Middle Persian

PahlaviPersianMiddle-Persian
Old Persian subsequently evolved into Middle Persian, which is in turn the ancestor of New Persian. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc., Old, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history.
It descended from Old Persian, the language of Achaemenid Empire, and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian.

Artaxerxes III

Artaxerxes III OchusArtaxerxes III of PersiaArtaxerxes
By the 4th century BCE, the late Achaemenid period, the inscriptions of Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III differ enough from the language of Darius' inscriptions to be called a "pre-Middle Persian," or "post-Old Persian."
Artaxerxes is the Latin form of the Greek Artaxerxes, itself from the Old Persian Artaxšaçā ("whose reign is through truth").

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
It is an Iranian language and as such a member of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

Parthia

Parthian EmpireParthian PersiaParthians
Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc., Old, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history.
The name "Parthia" is a continuation from Latin Parthia, from Old Persian Parthava, which was the Parthian language self-designator signifying "of the Parthians" who were an Iranian people.

Darius the Great

Darius IDariusDarius I of Persia
The factors making the consensus difficult are, among others, the difficult passage DB (IV lines 88–92) from Darius the Great who speaks of a new "form of writing" being made by himself which is said to be "in Aryan":
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: داریوش Dāryuš; ; c. 550–486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the fourth Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire.

Fars Province

FarsParsFārs
According to certain historical assumptions about the early history and origin of ancient Persians in southwestern Iran (where Achaemenids hailed from), Old Persian was originally spoken by a tribe called Parsuwash, who arrived in the Iranian Plateau early in the 1st millennium BCE and finally migrated down into the area of present-day Fārs province.
The Persian word Fârs is the Arabized form of the earlier form Pârs, which is in turn derived from, the Old Persian name for the Persis region.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
Old Persian subsequently evolved into Middle Persian, which is in turn the ancestor of New Persian. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc., Old, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history.
The Persian language is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, which was used in the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC).

Iranian languages

IranianOld IranianIranian language
It is an Iranian language and as such a member of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. The factors making the consensus difficult are, among others, the difficult passage DB (IV lines 88–92) from Darius the Great who speaks of a new "form of writing" being made by himself which is said to be "in Aryan": Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
The two directly attested Old Iranian languages are Old Persian (from the Achaemenid Empire) and Old Avestan (the language of the Avesta).

Behistun Inscription

BehistunBisitunBehistun relief and inscription
Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription (dated to 525 BCE). The factors making the consensus difficult are, among others, the difficult passage DB (IV lines 88–92) from Darius the Great who speaks of a new "form of writing" being made by himself which is said to be "in Aryan":
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun;, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran, established by Darius the Great ((r.

Sogdian language

SogdianSoghdianSogdian word
Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc., Old, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history.
No direct evidence of an earlier version of the language ("Old Sogdian") has been found, although mention of the area in the Old Persian inscriptions means that a separate and recognisable Sogdia existed at least since the Achaemenid Empire (559–323 BCE).

Avestan

Avestan languageOld AvestanAv.
Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Pashto, etc., Old, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history. Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
"Avestan, which is associated with northeastern Iran, and Old Persian, which belongs to the southwest, together constitute what is called Old Iranian."

Cyrus the Great

CyrusCyrus IIKing Cyrus
Although it is true that the oldest attested Old Persian inscriptions are from Behistun monument from Darius, the creation of this "new type of writing" seems, according to Schmitt, "to have begun already under Cyrus the Great".
The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from the Greek Κῦρος, Kỹros, itself from the Old Persian Kūruš.

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
Like other Old Iranian languages, this language was known to its native speakers as Iranian language. Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c.
In the grand rock-face inscriptions of the kings, the Elamite texts are always accompanied by Akkadian (Babylonian dialect) and Old Persian inscriptions, and it appears that in these cases, the Elamite texts are translations of the Old Persian ones.

Indo-Iranian languages

Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian languageIndo-Iranian branch
It is an Iranian language and as such a member of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The oldest attested Indo-Iranian languages are Vedic Sanskrit, Older and Younger Avestan and Old Persian (ancient Iranian languages).

Elamite language

ElamiteElamiticNeo-Elamite
The phoneme /r/ can also form a syllable peak; both the way Persian names with syllabic /r/ (such as Brdiya) are rendered in Elamite and its further development in Middle Persian suggest that before the syllabic /r/, an epenthetic vowel [i] had developed already in the Old Persian period, which later became [u] after labials.
Middle Elamite is considered the “classical” period of Elamite, but the best attested variety is Achaemenid Elamite, which was widely used by the Achaemenid Persian state for official inscriptions as well as administrative records and displays significant Old Persian influence.

Akkadian language

AkkadianBabylonianAssyrian
The phoneme /l/ does not occur in native Iranian vocabulary, only in borrowings from Akkadian (a new /l/ develops in Middle Persian from Old Persian /rd/ and the change of /rθ/ to /hl/).
The deciphering of the texts started immediately, and bilinguals, in particular Old Persian-Akkadian bilinguals, were of great help.

Daeva

divdaivadaēva
This meaning is – subject to interpretation – perhaps also evident in the Old Persian "daiva inscription" of the 5th century BCE.

Asha

drujArtaAsha Vahishta
Its Old Persian equivalent is arta-.