Oleg Losev

O. V. LosevOleg Vladimirovich Losev
Oleg Vladimirovich Losev (Оле́г Влади́мирович Ло́сев, sometimes spelled Lossev or Lossew in English) (10 May 1903 – 22 January 1942) was a Russian scientist and inventor, who made significant discoveries in the field of semiconductor junctions.wikipedia
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Crystal radio

crystal setcrystadinecrystal radio receiver
His interests focused on the point-contact crystal detector (cat's whisker detector), which was used as a demodulator in the first early radio receivers, crystal radios, before powered vacuum tube radios were developed in World War 1.
In early 1920s Russia, Oleg Losev was experimenting with applying voltage biases to various kinds of crystals for manufacture of radio detectors.

Silicon carbide

carborundumSiCSiC-MOSFET
In the course of investigating biased junctions as a technician at Nizhny Novgorod, Losev noticed that when direct current was passed through a silicon carbide (carborundum) point contact junction, a spot of greenish light was given off at the contact point.
Those experiments were later repeated by O. V. Losev in the Soviet Union in 1923.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
Although he was never able to complete a formal education and never held a research position, Losev conducted some of the earliest research into semiconductors, publishing 43 papers and receiving 16 "author's certificates" (the Soviet version of patents) for his discoveries. These crude semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices, and although they were widely used, almost nothing was known about how they worked.
Oleg Losev observed similar light emission in 1922 but at the time the effect had no practical use.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
He observed light emission from carborundum point-contact junctions, the first light-emitting diode (LED), did the first research on them, proposed the first correct theory of how they worked, and used them in practical applications such as electroluminescence.
Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927.

Tver

KalininKalinin CityTver City
Losev was born into a noble family in Tver, Russia.

Negative resistance

negative differential resistancecurrent filamentNegative differential conductivity
He explored negative resistance in semiconductor junctions, and was first to use them practically for amplification, building the first solid-state amplifiers, electronic oscillators, and superheterodyne radio receivers, 25 years before the invention of the transistor.
The first person to exploit negative resistance diodes practically was Russian radio researcher Oleg Losev, who in 1922 discovered negative differential resistance in biased zincite (zinc oxide) point contact junctions.

Kurt Lehovec

In 1951, Kurt Lehovec et al. published a paper in Physical Review.
With Carl Accardo and Edward Jamgochian, he explained the first light-emitting diodes citing previous work by Oleg Losev.

Crystal detector

cat's-whisker detectorcat's whisker detectorcat's whisker
His interests focused on the point-contact crystal detector (cat's whisker detector), which was used as a demodulator in the first early radio receivers, crystal radios, before powered vacuum tube radios were developed in World War 1.
The first person to exploit negative resistance practically was self-taught Russian physicist Oleg Losev, who devoted his career to the study of crystal detectors.

Zincite

In 1923 Losev began to research these "oscillating crystals" and discovered that biased zincite (zinc oxide) crystals could amplify a signal.

Scientist

scientistsresearch scientistscience
Oleg Vladimirovich Losev (Оле́г Влади́мирович Ло́сев, sometimes spelled Lossev or Lossew in English) (10 May 1903 – 22 January 1942) was a Russian scientist and inventor, who made significant discoveries in the field of semiconductor junctions.

Inventor

inventedToy inventorairplane manufacturer
Oleg Vladimirovich Losev (Оле́г Влади́мирович Ло́сев, sometimes spelled Lossev or Lossew in English) (10 May 1903 – 22 January 1942) was a Russian scientist and inventor, who made significant discoveries in the field of semiconductor junctions.

P–n junction

p-n junctionreverse biasjunction
Oleg Vladimirovich Losev (Оле́г Влади́мирович Ло́сев, sometimes spelled Lossev or Lossew in English) (10 May 1903 – 22 January 1942) was a Russian scientist and inventor, who made significant discoveries in the field of semiconductor junctions.

Electroluminescence

electroluminescentelectroluminescent panelEL
He observed light emission from carborundum point-contact junctions, the first light-emitting diode (LED), did the first research on them, proposed the first correct theory of how they worked, and used them in practical applications such as electroluminescence.

Electronic oscillator

oscillatoroscillatorsaudio oscillator
He explored negative resistance in semiconductor junctions, and was first to use them practically for amplification, building the first solid-state amplifiers, electronic oscillators, and superheterodyne radio receivers, 25 years before the invention of the transistor.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizedsilicon transistor
He explored negative resistance in semiconductor junctions, and was first to use them practically for amplification, building the first solid-state amplifiers, electronic oscillators, and superheterodyne radio receivers, 25 years before the invention of the transistor.

Tver Carriage Works

Tverskoy Vagonostroitelniy ZavodTVZTver wagon plant
His father was a retired captain in the Tsarist Imperial Army, who worked in the office of Tverskoy Vagonostroitelniy Zavod (Tversky Wagon Works), a local rolling stock factory.

October Revolution

Bolshevik RevolutionRussian Revolutionrevolution
At this time in Russian history, three years after the Bolshevik Revolution, during the upheaval of the Russian Civil War, an upper-class family background was a bar to higher education and career advancement.

Russian Civil War

Civil WarCivil War in Russiathe Civil War
At this time in Russian history, three years after the Bolshevik Revolution, during the upheaval of the Russian Civil War, an upper-class family background was a bar to higher education and career advancement.

Nizhny Novgorod

GorkyNizhniy NovgorodNizhni Novgorod
Losev went to work as a technician at the recently established Nizhny Novgorod Radio Laboratory (NNRL), the new Soviet government's first radio science laboratory, located in Nizhny Novgorod, where he worked under.

Demodulation

demodulatordemodulatedemodulates
His interests focused on the point-contact crystal detector (cat's whisker detector), which was used as a demodulator in the first early radio receivers, crystal radios, before powered vacuum tube radios were developed in World War 1.

Vacuum tube

vacuum tubestubethermionic valve
His interests focused on the point-contact crystal detector (cat's whisker detector), which was used as a demodulator in the first early radio receivers, crystal radios, before powered vacuum tube radios were developed in World War 1.

Diode

diodessemiconductor diodegermanium diode
These crude semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices, and although they were widely used, almost nothing was known about how they worked.

Abram Ioffe

Abram Fedorovich IoffeAbram F. IoffeA. F. Ioffe
At the invitation of director Abram Ioffe, from 1929 to 1933 he conducted research at the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute.

Ioffe Institute

Ioffe Physico-Technical InstituteLeningrad Physico-Technical InstituteIoffe Physical-Technical Institute
At the invitation of director Abram Ioffe, from 1929 to 1933 he conducted research at the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute.

First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Petersburg

First Pavlov State Medical University of St. PeterburgFirst Leningrad Medical InstituteSaint Petersburg State Medical University
After much hardship, in 1937 Losev was forced to take a position as a technician at the physics department of the Leningrad First Medical Institute (now the First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Peterburg) which did not support his research interests, where he continued until 1942.