Oliver Cromwell

CromwellCromwellianOliverCromwell’sLord ProtectorProtectorOliver Cromwell’sthe Lord ProtectorCromwellian forcesCromwellians
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.wikipedia
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English Civil War

Civil WarCivil WarsEnglish Revolution
He entered the English Civil Wars on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians, nicknamed "Old Ironsides".
The outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I (1649); the exile of his son, Charles II (1651); and the replacement of English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then the Protectorate under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell (1653–1658) and briefly his son Richard (1658–1659).

Ironside (cavalry)

IronsidesIronsideIronside cavalry
He entered the English Civil Wars on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians, nicknamed "Old Ironsides".
The Ironsides were troopers in the Parliamentarian cavalry formed by English political leader Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century, during the English Civil War.

John Milton

Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Sharp, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, and a hero of liberty by John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, and Samuel Rawson Gardiner.
John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet and intellectual, who served as a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.

Barebone's Parliament

Barebones Parliament1653Nominated Assembly
On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England (which included Wales at the time), Scotland, and Ireland from 16 December 1653.
Barebone's Parliament, also known as the Little Parliament, the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on 4 July 1653, and was the last attempt of the English Commonwealth to find a stable political form before the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector.

Long Parliament

November 1640ParliamentLong
He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640–1649) Parliaments.
In the chaos following the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, General George Monck allowed the members barred in 1648 to retake their seats, so that they could pass the necessary legislation to allow the Restoration and dissolve the Long Parliament.

Charles II of England

Charles IIKing Charles IIKing Charles II of England
The Royalists returned to power along with King Charles II in 1660, and they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.
However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell.

New Model Army

Parliamentary ArmyArmyParliamentary forces
He demonstrated his ability as a commander and was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role under General Sir Thomas Fairfax in the defeat of the Royalist ("Cavalier") forces.
Ultimately, the Army's Generals (particularly Oliver Cromwell) could rely both on the Army's internal discipline and its religious zeal and innate support for the "Good Old Cause" to maintain an essentially dictatorial rule.

100 Greatest Britons

Great Britonsgreatest Briton100 Great Britons
He was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.
The poll resulted in nominees including Guy Fawkes, who was executed because of his role in the murderous plot to blow up the Parliament of England; Oliver Cromwell, who created a republican England; Richard III, suspected of murdering his nephews; James Connolly, an Irish nationalist and socialist who was executed by the Crown in 1916; and a surprisingly high ranking of 17th for actor and singer Michael Crawford (the second highest-ranked entertainer, after John Lennon).

Charles I of England

Charles IKing Charles IKing Charles
Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649–1653).
Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England.


constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland "and of the dominions thereto belonging" from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic.
Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word republic was also in common use.

Oliver Cromwell's head

CromwellCromwell's severed headdug up, hung in chains, and beheaded
The Royalists returned to power along with King Charles II in 1660, and they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.
After the defeat of King Charles I in the English Civil War and Charles's subsequent beheading, Oliver Cromwell had become Lord Protector and ruler of the English Commonwealth.


St Peter's SchoolCounty of HuntingdonHuntingdon, Cambridgeshire
Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward.
It is well known as the birthplace of Oliver Cromwell, who was born in 1599 and was the Member of Parliament (MP) for the town in the 17th century.

Irish Confederate Wars

Confederate WarsEleven Years' WarEleven years war
Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars.
In 1649, a Parliamentarian army led by Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland and by 1653 had conquered the island.

Richard Williams (alias Cromwell)

Richard CromwellRichardRichard Williams
The family line continued through Richard Williams (alias Cromwell), (c.
He was the patrilineal great-grandfather of Oliver Cromwell.

Henry Williams (alias Cromwell)

Sir Henry CromwellHenry CromwellSir Henry Williams, alias Cromwell
1500–1544), Henry Williams (alias Cromwell), (c.
1537 – 1604) was a knight of the shire (MP) for Huntingdonshire and a grandfather of Oliver Cromwell.

Elizabeth Cromwell

Elizabeth BourchierCromwell, ElizabethElizabeth
Elizabeth Cromwell (née Bourchier; 1598–1665) was the wife of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland; and the mother of Richard Cromwell, the second Lord Protector.

Henry Ireton

IretonGeneral IretonGeneral Henry Ireton
The campaigns under Cromwell's successors Henry Ireton and Edmund Ludlow mostly consisted of long sieges of fortified cities and guerrilla warfare in the countryside.
Henry Ireton (1611 – 26 November 1651) was an English general in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War, the son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.

Henry Cromwell

Henry Cromwell (20 January 1628 – 23 March 1674) was the fourth son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier, and an important figure in the Parliamentarian regime in Ireland.

Antonia Fraser

Lady Antonia FraserFraser, AntoniaLady Antonia Margaret Caroline Pakenham
Antonia Fraser concludes that it was likely that he did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time.
In response to criticism of her writing about Oliver Cromwell, she has said, "I have no Catholic blood".

Richard Cromwell

RichardRichard Lord CromwellCromwellian regime
He was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was an English statesman who was the second Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and son of the first Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.

Elizabeth Claypole

ElizabethElizabeth Cromwell
The decline may have been hastened by the death of his daughter Elizabeth Claypole in August.
Elizabeth Claypole (née Cromwell; 2 July 1629 – 6 August 1658) was the second daughter of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his wife, Elizabeth Cromwell, and reportedly interceded with her father for royalist prisoners.

John Claypole

Lord ClaypoleJohn lord Claypoole
He was created Lord Cleypole by Oliver Cromwell, but this title naturally came to an end with the Restoration of 1660.


Huntingdonshire District CouncilHuntingdonCounty of Huntingdon
Cromwell's paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire.
In 2002 it established an annual "Huntingdonshire Day" on 25 April, the birthday of Oliver Cromwell.

Bridget Cromwell

Bridget Cromwell (1624 – June 1662) was Oliver Cromwell's eldest daughter.

Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge

Sidney Sussex CollegeSidney Sussex(Sidney Sussex)
He went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a recently founded college with a strong Puritan ethos.
Former members of the college include the political and military leader Oliver Cromwell, who was among the first students - although he never graduated, dropping out after his father became ill - and his skull is now buried beneath the college's ante-chapel.