Olympic Games

Stadium in Olympia, Greece
Baron Pierre de Coubertin
1834 Handbill, written in phonetic vernacular, advertising "Ho-limpyc Gaymes" in Oswestry, Shropshire, England
Evangelos Zappas
Opening ceremony in the Panathinaiko Stadium, 6 April 1896
Francis Field of Washington University in St. Louis during the 1904 Summer Olympics
Ice hockey game during the 1928 Winter Olympics at St. Moritz
1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo
A cartoon from the 1936 Olympics imagines the year 2000 when spectators will have been replaced by television and radio, their cheers coming from loudspeakers.
The Olympic flag
Opening ceremony of the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo
Athletes gather in the stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
A medal ceremony at the 2008 Summer Olympics with (from left to right): the Danish flag, the Union Flag of the UK, and the New Zealand flag
Professional NHL players were allowed to participate in ice hockey starting in 1998 (1998 Gold medal game between Russia and the Czech Republic pictured).
Countries that boycotted the 1956 Summer Olympics (shaded blue)
Countries that boycotted the 1964 Summer Olympics (shaded red)
Countries that boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics (shaded blue)
Countries that boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics (shaded blue)
Countries that boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics (shaded blue)
Jesse Owens on the podium after winning the long jump at the 1936 Summer Olympics
Thomas Hicks running the marathon at the 1904 Olympics
Charlotte Cooper of the United Kingdom was the first female Olympic champion, in the 1900 Games.
Paavo Nurmi (1897–1973), a Finnish middle-distance and long-distance runner, nicknamed the "Flying Finn" or the "Phantom Finn", set 22 official world records at distances between 1500 m and 20 km, winning nine golds and three silvers in his 12 events at the Olympic Games.
Map of Summer Olympics locations. Countries that have hosted one Summer Olympics are shaded green, while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue.
Map of Winter Olympics locations. Countries that have hosted one Winter Olympics are shaded green, while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue.

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Pacific Games

The Pacific Games (formerly known as the South Pacific Games) is a continental multi-sport event competing Olympic sports, with participation exclusively from archipelagic countries around the Pacific Ocean.

World Games

The World Games are an international multi-sport event comprising sports and sporting disciplines that are not contested in the Olympic Games.

Deaflympics

Elite level.

Deaflympics Logo

Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), athletes cannot be guided by sounds (such as starting pistols, bullhorn commands or referee whistles).

Ancient Olympic Games

The ancient Olympic Games (Ὀλυμπιακοὶ ἀγῶνες; Olympia, neuter plural: "the Olympics") were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece.

The palaestra of Olympia, a place devoted to the training of wrestlers and other athletes
The exedra reserved for the judges at Olympia on the south embankment of the stadium. Today, this is where the Olympic flame is passed on to the first torchbearer of the upcoming Olympic Games.
This model shows the site of Olympia, home of the ancient Olympic Games, as it looked around 100 BC. British Museum
Olympia over the ages. Areas of note: 2: Prytaneion, 4: Temple of Hera, 5: Pelopion, 10: Stadium, 15: Temple of Zeus, 20: Gymnasium, 21: Palaestra, 26: Greek Baths, 29: Leonidaion, 31: Bouleuterion
An artist's impression of ancient Olympia
The Discobolus is a copy of a Greek statue c. 5th century BC. It represents an ancient Olympic discus thrower
The Parthenon in Athens, one of the leading city-states of the ancient world
Three runners featured on an Attic black-figured Panathenaic prize amphora. 332–333 BC, British Museum
A section of the stone starting line at Olympia, which has a groove for each foot
Pankration scene: the pankriatiast on the right tries to gouge his opponent's eye; the umpire is about to strike him for this foul. Detail from an Attic red-figure kylix c. 490–480 BC, British Museum
A long-jumper holding halteres, Attic red-figure lekythos c. 470 to 460 BC
Ancient list of Olympic victors of the 75th to the 78th, and from the 81st to the 83rd Olympiads (480–468 BC, 456–448 BC)

The games were always held at Olympia rather than moving between different locations as is the practice with the modern Olympic Games.

Asian Games

Continental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.

The first Asian Games opening ceremony
1974 Asian Games medal

The Games are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and are described as the second largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games.

Paralympic Games

Periodic series of international multi-sport events involving athletes with a range of physical disabilities, including impaired muscle power , impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or Dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.

Sir Ludwig Guttmann
IPC headquarters in Bonn
First Paralympic symbol (1988–1994) used five pa
The Paralympic flag
Opening ceremony of the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens
A medal ceremony during the 2010 Winter Paralympics
Oscar Pistorius at a track meet on 8 July 2007
Olena Iurkovska of Ukraine competing on cross-country sit-skis at the 2010 Winter Paralympics
The Swedish goalball team at the 2004 Summer Paralympics

There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, are held almost immediately following the respective Olympic Games.

Olympiad

Stadium at ancient Olympia.
A relief of the Greek Olympiad.

An olympiad (Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years, particularly those associated with the ancient and modern Olympic Games.

Multi-sport event

Organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from nation-states.

Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London.

The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the Olympic Games, first held in modern times in 1896 in Athens, Greece and inspired by the Ancient Olympic Games, one of a number of such events held in antiquity.

1980 Summer Olympics

International multi-sport event held from 19 July to 3 August 1980 in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.

Emblem of the 1980 Summer Olympics
A Soviet stamp sheet showing the logo of the games and its mascot Misha holding the 1980 Olympic torch. The map shows the torch relay route from Olympia, Greece, the site of the ancient Olympic Games, to Moscow, Russian SFSR. It also depicts the number of gold, silver and bronze medals (80, 69, 46) won by the Soviet athletes at the Games.
Participating nations
Countries boycotting the 1980 Games are shaded blue
Olympic Village in February 2004
150-rubles platinum coin (reverse)
Marathon in front of Saint Basil's Cathedral. The athlete 563 in the foreground is Koh Chun-son from North Korea
All events in canoeing and rowing took place at the Moscow Canoeing and Rowing Basin in Krylatskoye
Olympic Velodrome in Krylatskoye
Pins released by the USSR for the football event of the Olympics (with a British 50 pence coin for size comparison)
The USSR men's handball team celebrating their victory over Yugoslavia
Rica Reinisch with her gold medal in 200 m swimming.
Misha, the mascot, formed in a mosaic as a tear runs down his face during the closing ceremony
Misha carried by balloons into the sky, commemorated by a 2000 postage stamp issued by Russia
A "bronze" medal – actually tombac – from the 1980 Summer Olympics
Number of athletes sent per nation

They were also the only Summer Olympic Games to be held in a communist country until the 2008 Summer Olympics held in China.

National Olympic Committee

National constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement.

Subject to the controls of the International Olympic Committee, NOCs are responsible for organizing their people's participation in the Olympic Games.