ombudsmenombudspersonPublic AdvocateombudswomanOffice of the Ombudsmanpublic editorDefender of RightsFrench OmbudsmanHuman Rights OmbudsmanMediator of the French Republic
An ombudsman (, also, ), ombudsperson, ombud, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of mal-administration or a violation of rights.wikipedia
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Children's CommissionerOmbudsman for ChildrenOffice of the Children's Commissioner
More recent developments have included the creation of specialized Children's Ombudsman and Information Commissioner agencies. There are also ombudsman agencies in each state, a number of industry based ombudsmen, children's commissioners and many other complaint-handling and review agencies, as detailed in the main article.
The agencies usually have a substantial degree of independence from the executive, and generally operate as specialised ombudsman offices or national human rights institutions, dealing with individual complaints, intervening with other public authorities, conducting research, and – where their mandate permits them to engage in advocacy – generally promoting children's rights in public policy, law and practice.
Chief Information Commissioner of IndiaInformation Commissioner's OfficeInformation Commissioner.
More recent developments have included the creation of specialized Children's Ombudsman and Information Commissioner agencies.
The office often functions as a specialist ombudsman service.
Chancellor of JusticeJustitieombudsmanJustitieombudsmannen
Use of the term in its modern use began in Sweden, with the Swedish Parliamentary Ombudsman instituted by the Instrument of Government of 1809, to safeguard the rights of citizens by establishing a supervisory agency independent of the executive branch.
Parliamentary Ombudsman (Eduskunnan oikeusasiamies, Riksdagens ombudsman, Umboðsmaður Alþingis, Folketingets Ombudsmand, Sivilombudsmannen ) is the name of the principal ombudsman institutions in Finland, in Iceland, in Denmark, in Norway, and in Sweden (where the term Justice Ombudsman - Justitieombudsmannen or JO - is also used).
Commonwealth OmbudsmanOmbudsmanVictorian Ombudsman
There are also ombudsman agencies in each state, a number of industry based ombudsmen, children's commissioners and many other complaint-handling and review agencies, as detailed in the main article.
Government ombudsman services are free to the public, like many other ombudsman and dispute resolution services, and are a means of resolving disputes outside of the court systems.
The second ombudsman was Armen Harutyunyan, who was elected by the National Assembly under article 83.1 of the Constitution on 17 February 2006, obtaining more than 3/5 votes of deputies, for what was intended to be a six-year term commencing on 20 February.
Armen Harutyunyan (Արմեն Հարությունյան; born 1964) is the former ombudsman of Armenia and Regional Representative of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights in Central Asia.
independent Ombudsman organizationOrganizational ombudsmenreader ombudsman
The organizational ombudsman works as a designated neutral party, one who is high-ranking in an organization, but who is not part of executive management.
As an independent and neutral employee, the organizational ombudsman ideally should have no other role or duties.
Eduardo René Mondino
However, no replacement was elected to fill the position, when the period of office ran out for the last person actually holding the office, Eduardo René Mondino, in 2008.
Until April 2009, he was the National Ombudsman of Argentina.
OmbudsmanOmbudsman for the European UnionOmbudsman of the European Union
The European Ombudsman was established by the Maastricht treaty, the treaty establishing the European Union.
The European Ombudsman (or sometimes Euro-Ombudsman) is an ombudsman for the European Union, based in the Václav Havel building in Strasbourg.
In July 2011 Dominique Baudis was appointed to the office by the Council of State on the nomination of the Prime Minister, for a single six-year term but died in April 2014.
Dominique Baudis (14 April 1947 – 10 April 2014) was the French ombudsman.
After his resignation in December 2013, Anna Šabatová, a deputy-ombudswoman from 2001 to 2007, was elected and sworn to the office in February 2014.
Anna Šabatová (born 23 June 1951) is a Czech politician, who is the current ombudsman of the Czech Republic.
Georgios KaminisGiorgios KaminisYorgos Kaminis
Following the resignation of Professor Georgios Kaminis in September 2010, the duties of the Citizen's Advocate passed to Deputy Ombudsman Kalliopi Spanou.
He was the Greek Ombudsman from April 2003 until September 2010 and mayor of Athens from 2011 until 2019.
Emily O’ReillyOmbudsman Emily O'Reilly
Thus, the modern plural form ombudsmen of the English borrowed word ombudsman is etymologically reasonable; but so was Emily O'Reilly's mild protest when she first was elected as the Ombudsman of the Irish Republic:
On 1 June 2003, she received her Warrant of Appointment as Irish Ombudsman and Information Commissioner from the then President of Ireland, Mary McAleese, at Áras an Uachtaráin.
Lok AyuktaLokayuktasJan Lokpal Bill
In India, the Ombudsman is known as the Lokpal or Lokayukta.
The Lokayukta (also Lok Ayukta) ( lokāyukta, "civil commissioner") is an anti-corruption ombudsman organization in the Indian states.
OmbudsmanColombia Ombudsman's Office of Human RightsNational Ombudsman's Office
The People's Defender (Defensoría del Pueblo) or Ombudsman's Office of Colombia is the national agency in charge of overseeing the protection of civil and human rights within the legal framework of the state of Colombia.
The ombudsman, or People's Defender (Defensor del Pueblo), is an official appointed by the President, and elected by the Chamber of Representatives of Colombia, to head this agency.
Jantantra MorchaKisan Baburao HazareWatershed development programmes
The 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement led by social activist Anna Hazare and Arvind Kejriwal includes in its demands the creation of a stronger ombudsman agency (with jurisdiction over all state institutions) through the enactment of a Jan Lokpal Bill, as an alternative to the Lokpal Bill proposed by the government in 2010.
Hazare started a hunger strike on 5 April 2011 to exert pressure on the Indian government to enact a stringent anti-corruption law, The Lokpal Bill, 2011 as envisaged in the Jan Lokpal Bill, for the institution of an ombudsman with the power to deal with corruption in public places.
Since October 2015 the office has been held by Maya Manolova.
Manolova was appointed as Ombudsman of Bulgaria by the National Assembly on 20 October 2015.
ECURepublic of EcuadorEcuadorian
In Ecuador, the officer known as People's Defender (Defensor del Pueblo) performs the functions of an ombudsman.
The Transparency and Social Control consists of the Council of Citizen Participation and Social Control, an ombudsman, the Comptroller General of the State, and the superintendents.
The post of Althing Ombudsman (Umboðsmaður Alþingis) was set up in 1987 under the terms of law number 13/1987, which deals with complaints against the government.
The Umboðsmaður Alþingis (Icelandic for, literally, "Ombudsman [of the] Parliament") is an ombudsman appointed by the Alþingi (the Parliament of Iceland) to oversee investigation of complaints against local government and government departments in Iceland.
post officeCanada Post CorporationPost Office Department
In Canada, ombudsman offices are present in most departments of the federal government, in many provincial and municipal governments as well as in Crown Corporations such as CBC and Canada Post.
The Ombudsman is the final appeal authority in resolving postal service complaints.
Following the death in office of the first ever Czech ombudsman, Otakar Motejl, in May 2010, former Constitutional Court judge Pavel Varvařovský was elected to the office by the lower house of parliament in September 2010.
He served as the first ombudsman of the Czech Republic from 2000 until his death in 2010.
PresidentIrish PresidentPresidents of Ireland
The Ombudsman is appointed by the President of Ireland upon the nomination of both Houses of the Oireachtas, and is a civil servant of the State.
Equality and Anti-Discrimination OmbudGender Equality OmbudNorwegian Gender Equality Ombudsman
The Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud (Likestillings- og diskrimineringsombudet) is a Norwegian ombudsman for gender equality and anti-discrimination, and is appointed for a term of six years by the King-in-Council, in effect by the Government of Norway.
State ComptrollerIsraeli State Comptroller7th State Comptroller of Israel
The State Comptroller also serves, by law, as Ombudsman.
By law, the State Comptroller in Israel also functions as Ombudsman (Hebrew: Netziv Tlunot HaTzibur) to whom members of the public may send complaints about actions by governmental bodies that have caused them harm.
Consumer OmbudsmanNorway's consumer ombudsmanOffice of the Consumer Ombudsman
The Norwegian Consumer Ombudsman (Forbrukerombudet) is a government-appointed ombudsman in Norway for consumer affairs.
In some countries, an inspector general, citizen advocate or other official may have duties similar to those of a national ombudsman and may also be appointed by a legislature.