On the Origin of Species

Origin of SpeciesThe Origin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural SelectionOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for LifeOn the Origin of Species through Natural Selectionstruggle for existencenatural selectionOrigins of SpeciesDarwinhis seminal work
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life), published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.wikipedia
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Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life), published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.
Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species.

Tree of life (biology)

tree of lifetree of descentevolutionary tree
It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution.
The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

History of evolutionary thought

evolutionary thoughtevolutionevolutionary theory
Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology.
In 1858 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace published a new evolutionary theory, explained in detail in Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection.
The concept, published by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in a [[On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection|joint presentation of papers in 1858]], was elaborated in Darwin's influential 1859 book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

X Club

a club
The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism.
After Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published in 1859, the men began working together to aid the cause for naturalism and natural history.

The eclipse of Darwinism

eclipse of Darwinismduring Darwinism's lowest ebba time when Darwinism was at a low ebb
During "the eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit.
Evolution was widely accepted in scientific circles within a few years after the publication of On the Origin of Species, but acceptance of natural selection as its driving mechanism was much less.

Species

specificspecific namespecific epithet
Every species is fertile enough that if all offspring survived to reproduce, the population would grow (fact). John Ray developed an influential natural theology of rational order; in his taxonomy, species were static and fixed, their adaptation and complexity designed by God, and varieties showed minor differences caused by local conditions.
Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.

Transmutation of species

transmutationtransformismtransmutationism
Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals.
Transmutation was one of the names commonly used for evolutionary ideas in the 19th century before Charles Darwin published On The Origin of Species (1859).

Common descent

common ancestorcommon ancestryapical ancestor
It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution.
Universal common descent through an evolutionary process was first proposed by the British naturalist Charles Darwin in the concluding sentence of his 1859 book On the Origin of Species:

History of paleontology

historypaleontological workpalæontological work
His palæontological work in the 1790s had established the reality of extinction, which he explained by local catastrophes, followed by repopulation of the affected areas by other species.
After Charles Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859, much of the focus of paleontology shifted to understanding evolutionary paths, including human evolution, and evolutionary theory.

Teleological argument

argument from designdesign argumentteleological
In Britain, William Paley's Natural Theology saw adaptation as evidence of beneficial "design" by the Creator acting through natural laws.
Especially important were the general logical arguments made by David Hume in his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, published 1779, and the explanation of biological complexity given in Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, published in 1859.

Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomist
John Ray developed an influential natural theology of rational order; in his taxonomy, species were static and fixed, their adaptation and complexity designed by God, and varieties showed minor differences caused by local conditions.
The publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships.

Richard Owen

OwenSir Richard OwenProfessor Owen
Richard Owen showed that fossils of extinct species Darwin found in South America were allied to living species on the same continent.
An outspoken critic of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, Owen agreed with Darwin that evolution occurred, but thought it was more complex than outlined in Darwin's On the Origin of Species.

History of biology

biologyhistorybasis of life
Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology.
The 1859 publication of Darwin's theory in [[On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life]] is often considered the central event in the history of modern biology.

Thomas Henry Huxley

HuxleyThomas HuxleyT. H. Huxley
The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism.
It is to this question that much of Darwin's On the Origin of Species was devoted.

Heredity

hereditaryinheritedheritable
Much of this variation is heritable (fact).
This led to Darwin adopting some Lamarckian ideas in later editions of On the Origin of Species and his later biological works.

Fancy pigeon

Fancyfancy breedfancy breeds
Unconventionally, Darwin asked questions of fancy pigeon and animal breeders as well as established scientists.
Charles Darwin is known to have crossbred fancy pigeons, particularly the Ice Pigeon, to study variation within species, this work coming three years before his groundbreaking publication, On the Origin of Species.

Herbert Spencer

SpencerSpencerianSpencer, Herbert
While few naturalists were willing to consider transmutation, Herbert Spencer became an active proponent of Lamarckism and progressive development in the 1850s.
Spencer is best known for the expression "survival of the fittest", which he coined in Principles of Biology (1864), after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.

John Gould

GouldGould, 1859Gould, John
In March 1837, ornithologist John Gould announced that Darwin's rhea was a separate species from the previously described rhea (though their territories overlapped), that mockingbirds collected on the Galápagos Islands represented three separate species each unique to a particular island, and that several distinct birds from those islands were all classified as finches.
Gould's work is referenced in Charles Darwin's book, On the Origin of Species.

Alfred Russel Wallace

WallaceAlfred WallaceA. R. Wallace
An 1855 paper on the "introduction" of species, written by Alfred Russel Wallace, claimed that patterns in the geographical distribution of living and fossil species could be explained if every new species always came into existence near an already existing, closely related species.
This prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in On the Origin of Species. Wallace did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin and then in the Malay Archipelago, where he identified the faunal divide now termed the Wallace Line, which separates the Indonesian archipelago into two distinct parts: a western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion where the fauna reflect Australasia.

Georges Cuvier

CuvierG. CuvierBaron Cuvier
Georges Cuvier strongly disputed such ideas, holding that unrelated, fixed species showed similarities that reflected a design for functional needs.
The harshness of his criticism and the strength of his reputation, however, continued to discourage naturalists from speculating about the gradual transmutation of species, until Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species more than two decades after Cuvier's death.

Clémence Royer

Royer
Darwin's attempts to find a translator in France fell through, and the translation by Clémence Royer published in 1862 added an introduction praising Darwin's ideas as an alternative to religious revelation and promoting ideas anticipating social Darwinism and eugenics, as well as numerous explanatory notes giving her own answers to doubts that Darwin expressed.
She is best known for her controversial 1862 French translation of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.

Social Darwinism

social DarwinistSocial Darwiniansocial Darwinists
Darwin's attempts to find a translator in France fell through, and the translation by Clémence Royer published in 1862 added an introduction praising Darwin's ideas as an alternative to religious revelation and promoting ideas anticipating social Darwinism and eugenics, as well as numerous explanatory notes giving her own answers to doubts that Darwin expressed.
After the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, one strand of Darwins' followers, led by Sir John Lubbock, argued that natural selection ceased to have any noticeable effect on humans once organised societies had been formed.

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection

On the Tendency of Speciboth of their theoriesOn the Tendency of SpeciA joint presentationOn the Tendency of Specijoint presentation
Lyell and Hooker agreed that a joint publication putting together Wallace's pages with extracts from Darwin's 1844 Essay and his 1857 letter to Gray should be presented at the Linnean Society, and on 1 July 1858, the papers entitled [[On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection]], by Wallace and Darwin respectively, were read out but drew little reaction.
This was published in November 1859 as On the Origin of Species.

John Herschel

Sir John HerschelHerschelJohn
Starting in 1827, at Cambridge University, Darwin learnt science as natural theology from botanist John Stevens Henslow, and read Paley, John Herschel and Alexander von Humboldt.
Later on, Darwin would be influenced by Herschel's writings in developing his theory advanced in The Origin of Species.