Oncogene

oncogenesproto-oncogeneproto-oncogenesoncoproteinoncogenicprotooncogeneoncoproteinsProto-oncogene proteins c-fosproto-oncogene proteins c-juncancer-causing gene
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.wikipedia
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Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Oncogenes build up an inflammatory pro-tumorigenic microenvironment.

Harold E. Varmus

Harold VarmusHarold Eliot VarmusDr. Harold Varmus
Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes were activated proto-oncogenes, found in many organisms including humans.
He was a co-recipient (along with J. Michael Bishop) of the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes.

University of California, Berkeley

UC BerkeleyUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeley
Experiments performed by Dr. G. Steve Martin of the University of California, Berkeley demonstrated that SRC was indeed the gene of the virus that acted as an oncogene upon infection.

Myc

c-MyccMycc-Myb
Examples of proto-oncogenes include RAS, WNT, MYC, ERK, and TRK.
Myc is a family of regulator genes and proto-oncogenes that code for transcription factors.

Mariano Barbacid

The Spanish biochemist Mariano Barbacid isolated the first oncogene.
Mariano Barbacid Montalbán (born 4 October 1949 in Madrid) is a Spanish molecular biochemist who discovered the first oncogene.

V-Src

Src
The first nucleotide sequence of v-Src was sequenced in 1980 by A.P. Czernilofsky et al.
The src gene is oncogenic as it triggers uncontrolled growth in abnormal host cells.

Retrovirus

retrovirusesRetroviridaeretroviral
SRC was in fact first discovered as an oncogene in a chicken retrovirus.
Because of this, it can be inserted into oncogenes.

Trk receptor

TRKTrk proteinsneurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTKR) family
Examples of proto-oncogenes include RAS, WNT, MYC, ERK, and TRK.
The family of Trk receptors is named for the oncogene trk, whose identification led to the discovery of its first member, TrkA.

University of California, San Francisco

University of California San FranciscoUCSFUC San Francisco
Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes were activated proto-oncogenes, found in many organisms including humans.

Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
In tumor cells, these genes are often mutated, or expressed at high levels.

J. Michael Bishop

Michael BishopJohn Michael BishopJ. Michael Bishop, MD
Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California, San Francisco demonstrated that oncogenes were activated proto-oncogenes, found in many organisms including humans.
Bishop is best known for his Nobel-winning work on retroviral oncogenes.

Oncomir

Mutations in such microRNAs (known as oncomirs) can lead to activation of oncogenes.
Some oncomir genes are oncogenes, in that overexpression of the gene leads to cancerous growth.

Signal transduction

signaling pathwayssignaling cascadesignal transduction pathways
Proto-oncogenes are often involved in signal transduction and execution of mitogenic signals, usually through their protein products.
The mutation of certain RTK genes, as with that of GPCRs, can result in the expression of receptors that exist in a constitutively activated state; such mutated genes may act as oncogenes.

ABL (gene)

AblAbl geneABL1
The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response.

HER2/neu

HER2ERBB2HER-2
Amplification or over-expression of this oncogene has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of certain aggressive types of breast cancer.

Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src

Srcc-Srcv-src
The first confirmed oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed SRC (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma).
Similarly, c-Src should not be mistaken for v-Src, a viral (hence the prefix v-) gene that shares similarity with c-Src and is also an oncogene, which can be found in Rous sarcoma virus.

Leukemia

leukaemialeukemiasleukemic
Certain mutations can trigger leukemia by activating oncogenes or deactivating tumor suppressor genes, and thereby disrupting the regulation of cell death, differentiation or division.

Wnt signaling pathway

WntWnt signalingWnt signalling pathway
Examples of proto-oncogenes include RAS, WNT, MYC, ERK, and TRK.
When Wnt1 was discovered, it was first identified as a proto-oncogene in a mouse model for breast cancer.

Melanoma

malignant melanomametastatic melanomamelanomas
If the mutations occur in protooncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, the rate of mitosis in the mutation-bearing cells can become uncontrolled, leading to the formation of a tumor.

Ras GTPase

RasRas subfamilyRas protein
Examples of proto-oncogenes include RAS, WNT, MYC, ERK, and TRK. He spent the following months extending his research, eventually discovering that such oncogene was the mutation of an allele of the Ras subfamily, as well as its activation mechanism.
The 3 Ras genes in humans (HRas, KRas, and NRas) are the most common oncogenes in human cancer; mutations that permanently activate Ras are found in 20% to 25% of all human tumors and up to 90% in certain types of cancer (e.g., pancreatic cancer).

Gene duplication

duplicationduplicationsamplification
Duplications of oncogenes are a common cause of many types of cancer.

Tyrosine kinase

tyrosine kinasesprotein-tyrosine kinaseprotein tyrosine kinase
The first non-receptor tyrosine kinase identified was the v-src oncogenic protein.

Oncogenomics

cancer geneticscancer genomicscancer genes
The goal of oncogenomics is to identify new oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes that may provide new insights into cancer diagnosis, predicting clinical outcome of cancers and new targets for cancer therapies.

Tumor suppressor

tumor suppressor genetumor suppressor genestumour suppressor gene
The loss of function for these genes may be even more significant in the development of human cancers, compared to the activation of oncogene s.

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EGFREGF receptorEGFR inhibitor
The identification of EGFR as an oncogene has led to the development of anticancer therapeutics directed against EGFR (called "EGFR inhibitors"), including gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, brigatinib and icotinib for lung cancer, and cetuximab for colon cancer.