Ontology

ontologicalontologicallyontologiesontologistonthologybeingHistory of ontologyonthologiconticontological status
Ontology is the philosophical study of being.wikipedia
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Essence

essentialessential propertiesessentially

Identity (philosophy)

identitysamenessnumerical identity
Hence, in The Sophist Plato argues that Being is a Form in which all existent things participate and which they have in common (though it is unclear whether "Being" is intended in the sense of existence, copula, or identity); and argues, against Parmenides, that Forms must exist not only of Being, but also of Negation and of non-Being (or Difference).

Domain of discourse

universe of discoursedomainarea of interest
Jaakko Hintikka puts the view that a useful explication of the notion of existence is in the words "one can find", implicitly in some world or universe of discourse.

Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanas
Ontology features in the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy from the first millennium BCE.

Guṇa

gunaGunascharacteristics
The concept of guṇa which describes the three properties (sattva, rajas and tamas) present in differing proportions in all existing things, is a notable concept of this school.

Sattva

sattvicSattva gunaSatvic
The concept of guṇa which describes the three properties (sattva, rajas and tamas) present in differing proportions in all existing things, is a notable concept of this school.

Rajas

Rajas gunaraajsicrajasic
The concept of guṇa which describes the three properties (sattva, rajas and tamas) present in differing proportions in all existing things, is a notable concept of this school.

Tamas (philosophy)

tamastamasicTamas guna
The concept of guṇa which describes the three properties (sattva, rajas and tamas) present in differing proportions in all existing things, is a notable concept of this school.

Grand Unified Theory

grand unified theoriesgrand unification theorygrand unification
This idea somewhat anticipates the modern concept of an ultimate grand unification theory that finally describes all of existence in terms of one inter-related sub-atomic reality which applies to everything.

Particle physics

high energy physicsparticle physicisthigh-energy physics
This idea somewhat anticipates the modern concept of an ultimate grand unification theory that finally describes all of existence in terms of one inter-related sub-atomic reality which applies to everything.

Philosophy of Baruch Spinoza

Philosophy of SpinozaBaruch Spinoza's philosophynaturalistic metaphysics
Most of western philosophy (especially the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza) — including the fundamental concepts of falsifiability — has emerged from this view.

Falsifiability

falsifiableunfalsifiablefalsification
Most of western philosophy (especially the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza) — including the fundamental concepts of falsifiability — has emerged from this view.

Eleatics

EleaticEleatic schoolEleatic philosophy
The opposite of Parmenides' Eleatic monism is the pluralistic conception of being.