Open-source modelwikipedia
The term open source refers to something people can modify and share.The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration.
open sourceopen-sourceopensourceopenopen-source modelopen-sourcedopen source softwareopen sourcingopen source technologyopen source principles

Apache Hadoop

HadoopApache HadoopHDFS
Many large formal institutions have sprung up to support the development of the open-source movement, including the Apache Software Foundation, which supports community projects such as the open-source framework Apache Hadoop and the open-source HTTP server Apache HTTP.
Apache Hadoop is a collection of open-source software utilities that facilitate using a network of many computers to solve problems involving massive amounts of data and computation.

Brian Behlendorf

Originally titled the "Freeware Summit" and later known as the "Open Source Summit", the event was attended by the leaders of many of the most important free and open-source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski, and Eric Raymond.
Brian Behlendorf (born March 30, 1973) is a technologist, executive, computer programmer and leading figure in the open-source software movement.

Michael Tiemann

Originally titled the "Freeware Summit" and later known as the "Open Source Summit", the event was attended by the leaders of many of the most important free and open-source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski, and Eric Raymond. The group included Christine Peterson, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond.
Michael Tiemann is vice president of open source affairs at Red Hat, Inc., and former President of the Open Source Initiative.

Software license

licensesoftware licenselicensed
Code is released under the terms of a software license.
The distinct conceptual difference between the two is the granting of rights to modify and re-use a software product obtained by a customer: FOSS software licenses both rights to the customer and therefore bundles the modifiable source code with the software ("open-source"), while proprietary software typically does not license these rights and therefore keeps the source code hidden ("closed source").

Bruce Perens

Shortly after, he founded The Open Source Initiative in collaboration with Bruce Perens.
He created The Open Source Definition and published the first formal announcement and manifesto of open source.

Open-source hardware

open-source hardwareopen source hardwareopen hardware
For example, in the context of open-source hardware design, digital designs are shared for free and anyone with access to digital manufacturing technologies (e.g. RepRap 3D printers) can replicate the product for the cost of materials.
Both free and open-source software (FOSS) and open-source hardware are created by this open-source culture movement and apply a like concept to a variety of components.

Android (operating system)

AndroidAndroid operating systemAndroid OS
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

List of free and open-source software packages

List of free and open source software packages concerning financeData Miningseveral free and open source computer programs
Software that fits the Free Software Definition may be more appropriately called free software; the GNU project in particular objects to their works being referred to as open-source.

Berkeley Software Distribution

BSDBSD Unix*BSD
BSD, for example, was first widely distributed by posts to comp.os.linux on the Usenet, which is also where its development was discussed.
Although these proprietary BSD derivatives were largely superseded by the UNIX System V Release 4 and OSF/1 systems in the 1990s, later BSD releases provided the basis for several ongoing open source projects including FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly BSD, Darwin, and TrueOS.

OpenRISC

OpenRISC familyOpenRisc
OpenRISC is a project to develop a series of open source instruction set architectures based on established reduced instruction set computing (RISC) principles.

Open-source software

open-source softwareopen sourceopen-source
Open-source software is software whose source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.
Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner.

Lasersaur

Lasersaur is an open source laser cutter which was developed by NORTD Labs.

Free Beer

free beer
Free Beer, originally known as Vores øl - An open source beer (Danish for: Our Beer), is the first brand of beer with an "open"/"free" brand and recipe.

MediaWiki

MediaWikithe wiki software used for WikiTraveltalk page
MediaWiki development has generally favored the use of open-source media formats.

Sun Microsystems

SunSun MicrosystemsOracle
It was also a major contributor to open-source software, as evidenced by its $1 billion purchase, in 2008, of MySQL, an open-source relational database management system.

RepRap project

RepRapRepRap OrmerodRepRaps
For example, in the context of open-source hardware design, digital designs are shared for free and anyone with access to digital manufacturing technologies (e.g. RepRap 3D printers) can replicate the product for the cost of materials.
As an open source project designers are free to make modifications and substitutions, but they must reshare their improvements.

Linux Journal

Linux JournalDave Phillips
Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal.
It focuses specifically on Linux, allowing the content to be a highly specialized source of information for open source enthusiasts.

Appropriate technology

appropriate technologyappropriate technologiesintermediate technology
Today appropriate technology is often developed using open source principles, which have led to open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) and thus many of the plans of the technology can be freely found on the Internet.

The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field

The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) is a project organized under open source principles, which is a fully grid-connected test system that continuously monitors the output of many solar photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings.

Freemium

freemiumFreemium business modelreal money
As well as for traditional software and services, it is now also often used by Web 2.0 and open source companies.

Open-source governance

open source governanceopen-source governanceopen politics
Open-source governance (also known as open politics) is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the philosophies of the open-source and open-content movements to democratic principles to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy, as with a wiki document.

OpenSolaris

OpenSolarisOpenOpenSolaris for IBM System z
In the 25 December 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open-source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux.
OpenSolaris is a discontinued, open source computer operating system based on Solaris created by Sun Microsystems.

Netscape

NetscapeNetscape CommunicationsNetscape Communications Corporation
Peterson suggested "open source" at a meeting held at Palo Alto, California, in reaction to Netscape's announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for Navigator.
January 1998 was also the month that Netscape started the open source Mozilla project.

Open-design movement

open designopen-designopen source design
More recently, principles of open design have been related to the free software and open source movements.