Open-source model

open sourceopen-sourceopensourceopen source technologyopenopen-source technologyopen source principlesopen source-like cultureopen-sourcedpublic development model
The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration.wikipedia
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Bruce Perens

Shortly after, he founded The Open Source Initiative in collaboration with Bruce Perens.
He created The Open Source Definition and published the first formal announcement and manifesto of open source.

Open-source hardware

open source hardwareopen hardwarehardware
For example, in the context of open-source hardware design, digital designs are shared for free and anyone with access to digital manufacturing technologies (e.g. RepRap 3D printers) can replicate the product for the cost of materials.
Both free and open-source software (FOSS) and open-source hardware are created by this open-source culture movement and apply a like concept to a variety of components.

Open-source software

open sourceopen-sourceopen source software
Open-source software is software which source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.
Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner.

The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field

Research – The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) is a grid-connected photovoltaic test system, which continuously monitors the output of a number of photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings. The OSOTF is organized under open-source principles – All data and analysis is to be made freely available to the entire photovoltaic community and the general public.
The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) is a project organized under open source principles, which is a fully grid-connected test system that continuously monitors the output of many solar photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings.

Arduino

shieldArduino IDEArduino boards
Arduino, a microcontroller platform for hobbyists, artists and designers.
The controversy surrounding Musto continued when, in July 2017, he reportedly pulled many Open source licenses, schematics, and code from the Arduino website, prompting scrutiny and outcry.

Eric S. Raymond

Eric RaymondRaymond, EricESR
The group included Christine Peterson, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond.
He co-founded the Open Source Initiative in 1998, taking on the self-appointed role of ambassador of open source to the press, business and public.

Linus Torvalds

Just for FunDavid DiamondLinus
Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal.
Although Torvalds believes "open source is the only right way to do software", he also has said that he uses the "best tool for the job", even if that includes proprietary software.

Open-source-software movement

open-source movementopen source communityopen source movement
The open-source software movement arose to clarify copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues.
In February 1998, the open-source movement was adopted, formalized, and spearheaded by the Open Source Initiative (OSI), an organization formed to market software "as something more amenable to commercial business use" The OSI owns the trademark "Open Source"

Free software

freefree-softwarefreely
Free software
"Open source" and its associated campaign mostly focus on the technicalities of the public development model and marketing free software to businesses, while taking the ethical issue of user rights very lightly or even antagonistically.

Rice University

RiceRice InstituteThe Rice Institute
Proponents of this view have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University, OpenCourseWare project at MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "open-source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database", Salman Khan's Khan Academy and Wikipedia as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software.
OpenStax CNX (formerly Connexions) and OpenStax - an open source platform and open access publisher, respectively, of open educational resources

Open-source journalism

open-content participatory journalism
Open-source journalism formerly referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, reflecting open-source intelligence, a similar term used in military intelligence circles.
The term open-source journalism is often used to describe a spectrum on online publications: from various forms of semi-participatory online community journalism (as exemplified by projects such as the copyright newspaper NorthWest Voice), through to genuine open-source news publications (such as the Spanish 20 minutos, and Wikinews).

Fair use

fair use doctrinefair-usefair
Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair-use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners.
The case, should this ruling hold, could have a significant impact on developing products for interoperability using APIs, such as with many open source projects.

Tinkerforge

Tinkerforge: A system of open-source stackable microcontroller building blocks. Allows control of motors and read out sensors with the programming languages C, C++, C#, Object Pascal, Java, PHP, Python and Ruby over a USB or Wifi connection on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. All of the hardware is licensed under CERN OHL (CERN Open Hardware License).
Tinkerforge hardware and software are both Open Source, and all files are hosted on GitHub.

Open-source license

open source licenseopen sourceopen-source
Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.
Open-source model

Open collaboration

The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source model

Tim O'Reilly

Tim O’Reilly
The term gained further visibility through an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly.
In 2001, O'Reilly coined the term inner source for the use of open source software development practices and the establishment of an open source-like culture within organisations whereby the organisation may still develop proprietary software but internally opens up its development.

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
Some goods which require large amounts of professional research and development, such as the pharmaceutical industry (which depends largely on patents, not copyright for intellectual property protection) are almost exclusively proprietary, although increasingly sophisticated technologies are being developed on open-source principles.
Several authors have argued for developing defensive prior art to prevent patenting based on obviousness using lists or algorithms. For example, a Professor of Law at the University of North Carolina School of Law, has demonstrated a method to protect DNA research., which could apply to other technology. Chin wrote an algorithm to generate 11 million "obvious" nucleotide sequences to count as prior art and his algorithmic approach has already proven effective at anticipating prior art against oligonucleotide composition claims filed since his publication of the list and has been cited by the U.S. patent office a number of times. More recently, Joshua Pearce developed an open-source algorithm for identifying prior art for 3D printing materials to make such materials obvious by patent standards. As the 3-D printing community is already grappling with legal issues, this development was hotly debated in the technical press. Chin made the same algorithem-based obvious argument in DNA probes.

Free-culture movement

free culturefree culture movementfree content
The idea of an "open-source" culture runs parallel to "Free Culture," but is substantively different.
Open-source model

Open content

open-contentopen licenceopen licenses
Open content
Open-source model

Open-source religion

open source religionopen-source religious
Open-source religion
Open Source Licensing and Open Source History

Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

BOINCBerkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC)BOINC Account Manager
The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC, pronounced – rhymes with "oink" ), an open-source middleware system, supports volunteer and grid computing.

Amavis

Amavis is an open source content filter for electronic mail, implementing mail message transfer, decoding, some processing and checking, and interfacing with external content filters to provide protection against spam and viruses and other malware.

Capella (engineering)

Capella
Capella is an Open Source solution for model-based systems engineering (MBSE).