Open-source model

open sourceopen-sourceopenopen source technologyopen source principlesopen-source technologyopen-sourcedopen sourcingcollaborative public mannerfree and open-source
The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration.wikipedia
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Michael Tiemann

The group included Christine Peterson, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond.
Michael Tiemann is vice president of open source affairs at Red Hat, Inc., and former President of the Open Source Initiative.

Bruce Perens

Shortly after, he founded The Open Source Initiative in collaboration with Bruce Perens.
He created The Open Source Definition and published the first formal announcement and manifesto of open source.

Open-source hardware

open source hardwareopen hardwarehardware
For example, in the context of open-source hardware design, digital designs are shared for free and anyone with access to digital manufacturing technologies (e.g. RepRap 3D printers) can replicate the product for the cost of materials.
Both free and open-source software (FOSS) and open-source hardware are created by this open-source culture movement and apply a like concept to a variety of components.

Linux Journal

Dave Phillips
Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal.
It focuses specifically on Linux, allowing the content to be a highly specialized source of information for open source enthusiasts.

Open-source software

open sourceopen-sourceopen source software
Open-source software is software which source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.
Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner.


Freemium business modelreal moneyfree to play
Freemium – Give away a limited version for free and charge for a premium version (potentially using a dual license).
As well as for traditional software and services, it is now also often used by Web 2.0 and open source companies.

Linus Torvalds

Just for Fun Torvalds, LinusDavid Diamond
Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal.
Although Torvalds believes "open source is the only right way to do software", he also has said that he uses the "best tool for the job", even if that includes proprietary software.

Free Beer

Free Beer (originally Vores Øl) – is an open-source beer created by students at the IT-University in Copenhagen together with Superflex, an artist collective, to illustrate how open-source concepts might be applied outside the digital world.
Free Beer, originally known as Vores øl - An open source beer (Danish for: Our Beer), is the first brand of beer with an "open"/"free" brand and recipe.

Red Hat

Red Hat, Inc.JBossRedHat
Red Hat operates on a professional open-source business model based on open-source software, development within a community, professional quality assurance, and subscription-based customer support.


Arduino boardsArduino
Arduino, a microcontroller platform for hobbyists, artists and designers.
The controversy surrounding Musto continued when, in July 2017, he reportedly pulled many Open source licenses, schematics, and code from the Arduino website, prompting scrutiny and outcry.

Open collaboration

The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source model

Open-source license

open sourceopen-sourceopen source license
Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.
Open-source model

Eric S. Raymond

Eric RaymondRaymond, EricESR
The group included Christine Peterson, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond.
He co-founded the Open Source Initiative in 1998, taking on the self-appointed role of ambassador of open source to the press, business and public.

The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field

Research – The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) is a grid-connected photovoltaic test system, which continuously monitors the output of a number of photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings. The OSOTF is organized under open-source principles – All data and analysis is to be made freely available to the entire photovoltaic community and the general public.
The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) is a project organized under open source principles, which is a fully grid-connected test system that continuously monitors the output of many solar photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings.

Tim O'Reilly

Tim O’Reilly
The term gained further visibility through an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly.
In 1998, O'Reilly helped rebrand free software under the term open source.


Hyperloop Genesis
Engineering – Hyperloop, a form of high-speed transport proposed by entrepreneur Elon Musk, which he describes as "an elevated, reduced-pressure tube that contains pressurized capsules driven within the tube by a number of linear electric motors".
The Hyperloop Alpha was released as an open source design.

The Cathedral and the Bazaar

Bazaarcathedralbazaar model
There are few examples of business information (methodologies, advice, guidance, practices) using the open-source model, although this is another case where the potential is enormous. ITIL is close to open source. It uses the Cathedral model (no mechanism exists for user contribution) and the content must be bought for a fee that is small by business consulting standards (hundreds of British pounds). Various checklists are published by government, banks or accounting firms.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (abbreviated CatB) is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail.

Open-source governance

open source governanceopen politicsopen governance
Open politics (sometimes known as Open-source politics) is a political process that uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback mechanism between political organizations and their supporters. There is also an alternative conception of the term Open-source politics which relates to the development of public policy under a set of rules and processes similar to the open-source software movement.
Open-source governance (also known as open politics) is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the philosophies of the open-source and open-content movements to democratic principles to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy, as with a wiki document.

Consumers' co-operative

consumer co-operativeconsumers' cooperativeconsumer cooperative
Being organized as effectively a "consumers' cooperative", open source eliminates some of the access costs of consumers and creators of derivative works by reducing the restrictions of copyright.
Open source


patentspatent lawpatented
Some goods which require large amounts of professional research and development, such as the pharmaceutical industry (which depends largely on patents, not copyright for intellectual property protection) are almost exclusively proprietary, although increasingly sophisticated technologies are being developed on open-source principles.
Several authors have argued for developing defensive prior art to prevent patenting based on obviousness using lists or algorithms. For example, a Professor of Law at the University of North Carolina School of Law, has demonstrated a method to protect DNA research., which could apply to other technology. Chin wrote an algorithm to generate 11 million "obvious" nucleotide sequences to count as prior art and his algorithmic approach has already proven effective at anticipating prior art against oligonucleotide composition claims filed since his publication of the list and has been cited by the U.S. patent office a number of times. More recently, Joshua Pearce developed an open-source algorithm for identifying prior art for 3D printing materials to make such materials obvious by patent standards. As the 3-D printing community is already grappling with legal issues, this development was hotly debated in the technical press. Chin made the same algorithem-based obvious argument in DNA probes.

Open-source-software movement

open-source movementopen source communityopen source movement
The open-source software movement arose to clarify copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues.
Open-source model

Fair use

fair use doctrinefair-usefair
Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair-use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners.
The case, should this ruling hold, could have a significant impact on developing products for interoperability using APIs, such as with many open source projects.

Open-source journalism

open-content participatory journalism
Open-source journalism formerly referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, reflecting open-source intelligence, a similar term used in military intelligence circles.
The term open-source journalism is often used to describe a spectrum on online publications: from various forms of semi-participatory online community journalism (as exemplified by projects such as the copyright newspaper NorthWest Voice), through to genuine open-source news publications (such as the Spanish 20 minutos, and Wikinews).

Rice University

RiceRice Institutebeer bike
Proponents of this view have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University, OpenCourseWare project at MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "open-source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database", Salman Khan's Khan Academy and Wikipedia as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software.
OpenStax CNX (formerly Connexions) and OpenStax - an open source platform and open access publisher, respectively, of open educational resources

Free-culture movement

free culturefree culture movementfree content
The idea of an "open-source" culture runs parallel to "Free Culture," but is substantively different.
Open-source model