Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
Open access logo, originally designed by Public Library of Science
Title page of the first volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science
Venn diagram highlighting the key features of different types of open access in scholarly publishing.
Download rate for articles on Sci-Hub (black open access)
Licenses used by gold and hybrid OA journals in DOAJ
Article processing charges by gold OA journals in DOAJ
Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO
Length of embargo times for bronze Elsevier journals
Share of hybrid open access (OA) articles in the subscription journals of the top three publishers. JCR, Journal Citation Reports. Reproduced
Number of open access repositories listed in the Registry of Open Access Repositories

Based on statistical arguments, it has been shown that electronic publishing online, and to some extent open access, both provide wider dissemination and increase the average number of citations an article receives.

- Scientific journal

All researchers benefit from open access as no library can afford to subscribe to every scientific journal and most can only afford a small fraction of them – this is known as the "serials crisis".

- Open access
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869

4 related topics

Alpha

Cover of a 2016 issue of Nature featuring artistic representation of Proxima Centauri and its planet Proxima b

Nature (journal)

Cover of a 2016 issue of Nature featuring artistic representation of Proxima Centauri and its planet Proxima b
First title page, 4 November 1869
Skewed curve of citations per article in 2015 to Nature articles from 2013 to 2014.
Nature Materials, a specialized journal from Nature Research, 2018.

Nature is a British weekly scientific journal founded and based in London, England.

While it does, to an extent, provide free online access to articles, it is not a true open access scheme due to its restrictions on re-use and distribution.

Cover of the first volume of the first series (discontinued 1882)

Science (journal)

Peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the world's top academic journals.

Peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the world's top academic journals.

Cover of the first volume of the first series (discontinued 1882)
Cover of the first volume of the resurrected journal (February–June 1883)

Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field, Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines.

During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology, and open access publishing with Science Advances.

ArXiv

Open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not peer review.

Open-access repository of electronic preprints and postprints (known as e-prints) approved for posting after moderation, but not peer review.

A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994, using the browser NCSA Mosaic. At the time, HTML forms were a new technology.
ArXiv's daily submission rate growth over 30 years since its beginning with topics labelled by the standard abbreviations used on arxiv.org
A screenshot of viewing a paper's abstract on arxiv.org in 2021

A majority of the e-prints are also submitted to journals for publication, but some work, including some very influential papers, remain purely as e-prints and are never published in a peer-reviewed journal.

As of 2020, the Unpaywall dump links over 500,000 arxiv URLs as the open access version of a work found in CrossRef data from the publishers, making arXiv a top 10 global host of green open access.

Scientific and technical journal publications per million residents (2013)

Academic publishing

Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

Scientific and technical journal publications per million residents (2013)

An important trend, particularly with respect to journals in the sciences, is open access via the Internet.

Most scientific research is initially published in scientific journals and considered to be a primary source.