Open science

open-scienceopen peer reviewopen scientificopen up science
Open science is the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) and its dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional.wikipedia
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Open research

transparentresearchTransparency
It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge.
Especially if the research is scientific in nature, it is frequently referred to as open science.

Science 2.0

science2.0
Web 2.0 is considered a set of helpful tools that can foster collaboration (sometimes also referred to as Science 2.0).
It is similar to the open research and open science movements and is inspired by Web 2.0 technologies.

Open data

Open government dataopendata
According to the FOSTER taxonomy Open science can often include aspects of Open access, Open data and the open source movement whereby modern science requires software in order to process data and information.
The goals of the open-source data movement are similar to those of other "open(-source)" movements such as open-source software, hardware, open content, open education, open educational resources, open government, open knowledge, open access, open science, and the open web.

Elsevier

Elsevier ScienceNorth-HollandJournal of Algorithms
One response to this bill was protests from various researchers; among them was a boycott of commercial publisher Elsevier called The Cost of Knowledge.
The New Yorker described Elsevier's reasons for buying Mendeley as two-fold: to acquire its user data, and to "destroy or coöpt an open-science icon that threatens its business model".

Research Works Act

In December 2011, some United States legislators introduced a bill called the Research Works Act, which would prohibit federal agencies from issuing grants with any provision requiring that articles reporting on taxpayer-funded research be published for free to the public online.
The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, the Alliance for Taxpayer Access, the American Library Association, the International Society for Computational Biology, the Confederation of Open Access Repositories and prominent open science and open access advocates criticized the Research Works Act, some of them urging scholarly societies to resign from the AAP because of its support for the bill.

Open-notebook science

Open Notebook Science
It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge.

Open Knowledge Foundation

Open Knowledge InternationalOpen KnowledgeThe Open Knowledge Foundation
The Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF) is a global organization sharing large data catalogs, running face to face conferences, and supporting open source software projects.
The Open Knowledge Foundation Advisory Council includes people from the areas of open access, open data, open content, open science, data visualization and digital rights.

OpenWorm

OpenWorm project
For example, OpenWorm seeks to make a cellular level simulation of a roundworm, a multidisciplinary project.
OpenWorm is an international open science project to simulate the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans at the cellular level as a simulation.

Open synthetic biology

Open science is stimulating the emergence of sub-branches such as open synthetic biology and open therapeutics.
Its foundational concepts are open science and the Bermuda Principles.

Panton Principles

Statements of principles include the Budapest Open Access Initiative from a December 2001 conference and the Panton Principles.
The Panton Principles are a set of principles which were written to promote open science.

Michael Eisen

Michael B. Eisen
Michael Eisen, a founder of the Public Library of Science, has described this system by saying that "taxpayers who already paid for the research would have to pay again to read the results."
Throughout his career he has been an advocate for "open science", which is the free release of the material and intellectual product of scientific research.

The Cost of Knowledge

Cost of Knowledgeboycott of the organization
One response to this bill was protests from various researchers; among them was a boycott of commercial publisher Elsevier called The Cost of Knowledge.
When the British Wellcome Trust made a commitment to open up science, The Guardian similarly called this the "Academic Spring".

Open access

open-accessopen access journalopen-access journal
It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge. According to the FOSTER taxonomy Open science can often include aspects of Open access, Open data and the open source movement whereby modern science requires software in order to process data and information.
The emergence of open science or open research has brought to light a number of controversial and hotly-debated topics.

Data dredging

p-hackingp''-hackingdata snooping
For example, psychologist Stuart Vyse notes that "(r)ecent research aimed at previously published psychology studies has demonstrated--shockingly--that a large number of classic phenomena cannot be reproduced, and the popularity of p-hacking is thought to be one of the culprits."
Methods and results can also be made publicly available, as in the open science approach, making it yet more difficult for data dredging to take place.

Amsterdam Call for Action on Open Science

The Amsterdam Call for Action on Open Science
During this meeting also The Amsterdam Call for Action on Open Science was presented, a living document outlining concrete actions for the European Community to move to Open Science.
The Amsterdam Call for Action on Open Science was first produced as a draft at an Open Science meeting that was organized by the Dutch Presidency of the Council of the European Union on April 4 and 5, 2016, in Amsterdam.

Faculty of 1000

F1000F1000ResearchF1000 Research
As part of its open science model, the data behind each article are also published and are downloadable.

Center for Open Science

Centre for Open ScienceOpen Science Collaboration
The Allen Institute for Brain Science conducts numerous open science projects while the Center for Open Science has projects to conduct, advocate, and create tools for open science.

Open source

open-sourceopensourceopen
Open science is said to be the antithesis of the blind faith in Scientism, and has the potential to be a practical defense against proprietary (closed) pseudoscience.

Open peer review

public peer reviewopen peer-reviewopen peer-reviewed

Dissemination

disseminateddisseminatedata distribution
Open science is the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) and its dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional.

Free content

freefree knowledgefree-content
Open science is the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) and its dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional.