A report on Opera

La Scala of Milan
Palais Garnier of the Paris Opéra
Macbeth at the Savonlinna Opera Festival in St. Olaf's Castle, Savonlinna, Finland, in 2007
Claudio Monteverdi
Antonio Vivaldi, in 1723
Private baroque theatre in Český Krumlov
Teatro Argentina (Panini, 1747, Musée du Louvre)
Illustration for the score of the original Vienna version of Orfeo ed Euridice
Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886
The Queen of the Night in an 1815 production of Mozart's Die Zauberflöte
Richard Wagner
Brünnhilde throws herself on Siegfried's funeral pyre in Wagner's Götterdämmerung
A performance of Lully's opera Armide in the Salle du Palais-Royal in 1761
Magdalena Kožená and Jonas Kaufmann in a scene from Carmen, Salzburg Festival 2012
Henry Purcell
Thomas Arne
The Mikado (Lithograph)
Feodor Chaliapin as Ivan Susanin in Glinka's A Life for the Tsar
Leoš Janáček in 1917
Score of Smetana's The Bartered Bride
Ferenc Erkel, the father of Hungarian opera
Scene from Uzeyir Hajibeyovs "Leyli and Majnun" opera. 1934. Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater
Arnold Schoenberg in 1917; portrait by Egon Schiele
Stravinsky in 1921
The castrato Senesino, c. 1720
German opera orchestra from the early 1950s
Swedish opera singers in a tribute to Kjerstin Dellert and the Ulriksdal Palace Theatre at the 40-year jubilee in 2016 of its funding, renovation and subsequent reopening
Sydney Opera House

Form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by singers.

- Opera
La Scala of Milan

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Portrait of Giuseppe Verdi by Giovanni Boldini, 1886

Giuseppe Verdi

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Portrait of Giuseppe Verdi by Giovanni Boldini, 1886
Verdi's childhood home at Le Roncole
Antonio Barezzi, Verdi's patron and later father-in-law
Margherita Barezzi, Verdi's first wife
Temistocle Solera, Verdi's first librettist.
Francesco Maria Piave whose work with Verdi included Rigoletto and La traviata
Giuseppina Strepponi (c. 1845)
Emanuele Muzio, Verdi's pupil and assistant
Salvadore Cammarano, librettist of Alzira, La battaglia di Legnano, and Luisa Miller
Villa Verdi at Sant'Agata, as it looked between 1859 and 1865
Giuseppina Strepponi, c. 1850s
Verdi confronting the Naples censor when preparing Un ballo in maschera (caricature by Delfico)
Painting "Viva Verdi" slogans
Verdi in Russia, 1861–62
Teresa Stolz as Aida in the 1872 Parma production
Arrigo Boito and Verdi at Sant'Agata in 1893
Group portrait at Sant'Agata in 1900 with various family and friends. His companion Teresa Stolz is standing at the left, Giulio Ricordi is standing second from the right, with his wife seated below him. Verdi is in the middle, and his adopted daughter,  Maria Carrara Verdi, is seated at the far left.
Verdi's grave at the Casa di Riposo, Milan
Giuseppe Verdi in Vanity Fair (1879)
Macbeth meets the witches (Act I, scene 1)
Stage set by Giuseppe Bertoja for the premiere of Rigoletto (Act 1, Scene 2)
Les vêpres siciliennes: poster for the premiere (1855)
Verdi conducting the Paris Opera premiere of Aida in 1880
Luigi Secchi's 1913 statue of Verdi in Busseto
The final scene of the opera Risorgimento! (2011) by Lorenzo Ferrero. Verdi, one of the characters in the opera, stands just left of centre.

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian composer best known for his operas.

Rossini as a young man, circa 1810–1815

Gioachino Rossini

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Rossini as a young man, circa 1810–1815
The storm scene from Il barbiere in an 1830 lithograph by Alexandre Fragonard
Isabella Colbran, prima donna of the Teatro San Carlo, who married Rossini in 1822
George IV (left) greeting Rossini at the Brighton Pavilion, 1823
Isolier, Ory, Adèle and Ragonde, in Le comte Ory
Olympe Pélissier in 1830
Rossini, circa 1850
Rossini in 1865, by Étienne Carjat
Extract from "Di tanti palpiti" (Tancredi)
Poster for a performance of Tancredi in Ferrara, 1813
Domenico Barbaja in Naples in the 1820s
"Il signor Tambourossini, ou la nouvelle mélodie" (1821). Combining the composer's name with tambour (French for "drum"), this lithograph by the French artist Paul Delaroche makes clear the early Rossini's European reputation as a creator of noise, including a trumpet and drum accompanied by a magpie, several references to his early operas, and showing him and King Midas literally trampling on sheet-music and violins, while Apollo (the god of music) makes his escape in the background.
Extract from Rossini's Moïse published in Le Globe, 31 March 1827, in an article by Ludovic Vitet.
Costume designs for Guillaume Tell, with Laure Cinti-Damoreau as Mathilde, Adolphe Nourrit as Arnold Melchtal, and Nicolas Levasseur as Walter Furst
Set design for the original production of Robert Bruce (1846)
Rossini's final resting place, in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence; sculpture by Giuseppe Cassioli (1900)

Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he also wrote many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces, and some sacred music.

The Black Crook was a hit musical in 1866.

Musical theatre

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Form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.

Form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.

The Black Crook was a hit musical in 1866.
A Gaiety Girl (1893) was one of the first hit musicals
George Gershwin
Chinese opera performers
A view of Rhodes by John Webb, to be painted on a backshutter for the first performance of The Siege of Rhodes (1656)
Poster, c. 1879
Cover of the Vocal Score of Sidney Jones' The Geisha
Victor Herbert
Sheet music from Sally, 1920
Rodgers and Hart
Rodgers and Hammerstein (left and right) and Irving Berlin (center) at the St. James Theatre in 1948
Mary Martin starred in several Broadway hits of this era
Julie Andrews with Richard Burton in Camelot (1960)
Leonard Bernstein, 1971
Bernadette Peters (shown in 2008) has starred in five Sondheim musicals
A Chorus Line was one of 55 productions that Joseph Papp's Public Theatre has brought to Broadway
Cameron Mackintosh
Audra McDonald
The cast of Hamilton meets President Obama in 2015
Zac Efron and Zendaya (pictured), along with Hugh Jackman, brought star power to The Greatest Showman
Dove Cameron has starred in such TV musicals as Descendants, Hairspray Live! and Schmigadoon!
Marquee of the In the Heart of the Beast Theatre in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during the COVID-19 pandemic
Japan's all-female Takarazuka Revue in a 1930 performance of "Parisette"
Naples Players' teen Thoroughly Modern Millie, 2009
The Lion King on Broadway

Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements.

Mozart, c. 1781, detail from portrait by Johann Nepomuk della CroceWolfgang Amadeus Mozart Signature.svg

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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Prolific and influential composer of the Classical period.

Prolific and influential composer of the Classical period.

Mozart, c. 1781, detail from portrait by Johann Nepomuk della CroceWolfgang Amadeus Mozart Signature.svg
Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg
The Mozart family on tour: Leopold, Wolfgang, and Nannerl. Watercolour by Carmontelle, c.1763
Mozart aged 14 in January 1770 (School of Verona, attributed to Giambettino Cignaroli)
, Salzburg, Mozart family residence from 1773; reconstructed 1996
Mozart wearing the badge of the Order of the Golden Spur which he received in 1770 from Pope Clement XIV in Rome. The painting is a 1777 copy of a work now lost.
Mozart family, c. 1780 (della Croce); the portrait on the wall is of Mozart's mother.
1782 portrait of Constanze Mozart by her brother-in-law Joseph Lange
Fortepiano played by Mozart in 1787, Czech Museum of Music, Prague
Drawing of Mozart in silverpoint, made by Dora Stock during Mozart's visit to Dresden, April 1789
Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819
Detail of portrait of Mozart by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange; for discussion of the portrait, see Joseph Lange
Facsimile sheet of music from the Dies Irae movement of the Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) in Mozart's handwriting (Mozarthaus, Vienna)
Mozart Monument, Frankfurt, Mozartplatz, Frankfurt

Many of these compositions are acknowledged as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire.

Alessandro Scarlatti, one of the first major composers of opera buffa

Opera buffa

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Alessandro Scarlatti, one of the first major composers of opera buffa

Opera buffa ( "comic opera", plural: opere buffe) is a genre of opera.

Gaetano Donizetti

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Donizetti as a schoolboy in Bergamo
Johann Simone Mayr, c. 1810
Donizetti as a schoolboy
The young Donizetti
Bartolomeo Merelli, 1840
Donizetti as a young man
Jacopo Ferretti, Italian librettist and poet, 1784–1852
Domenico Barbaja in Naples in the 1820s
Teatro di San Carlo, c. 1830
Librettist Felice Romani
Giovanni Battista Rubini
Giuditta Pasta
Gaetano Donizetti (posthumous portrait by Ponziano Loverini)
Librettist Salvadore Cammarano
Donizetti, c. 1835
Deleidi's Donizetti and His Friends: (from left) Luigi Bettinelli, Gaetano Donizetti, Antonio Dolci, Simon Mayr, and the artist Luigi Deleidi, in Bergamo 1840
Gaetano Donizetti, from a lithography by Josef Kriehuber (1842)
Delécluze by Ingres
The Imperial and Royal Court Opera, Vienna 1830
Salle Le Peletier, seat of the Académie royale de Musique or the Paris Opera, c. 1821
Antonio Dolci, Bergamo friend of Donizetti
Gaetano Donizetti's brother Giuseppe
Guglielmo Cottrau (1797–1847)
Andrea Donizetti, nephew of composer Gaetano Donizetti, 1847
Dr. Philippe Ricord
Baron Eduard von Lannoy, Lithography by Josef Kriehuber, 1837
Daguerreotype taken on 3 August 1847: Donizetti with his nephew Andrea in Paris
Donizetti's tomb in Bergamo
Portrait of Gaetano Donizetti by Giuseppe Rillosi, 1848
Virginia Vasselli, wife of Gaetano Donizetti, c. 1820

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer, best known for his almost 70 operas.

Portrait of Strauss by Max Liebermann (1918)

Richard Strauss

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German composer, conductor, pianist, and violinist.

German composer, conductor, pianist, and violinist.

Portrait of Strauss by Max Liebermann (1918)
Strauss aged 22
Pauline de Ahna Strauss, c. 1900
Strauss villa at Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Built 1906. Architect: Emanuel Seidl.
Strauss, portrait by Fritz Erler, 1898
Strauss with his wife and son, 1910
Strauss was on the cover of TIME in 1927 and (here) 1938.
Strauss at Garmisch in 1938
Richard Strauss engraved by Ferdinand Schmutzer (1922)
Richard Strauss
Stamp issued in 1954
Strauss conducting (c. 1900)
Star on the Walk of Fame, Vienna

While his output of works encompasses nearly every type of classical compositional form, Strauss achieved his greatest success with tone poems and operas.

The farewell aria of Sultan Bazajet in Handel's opera Tamerlano. (Note the da capo instruction.) First edition, London, 1719.

Aria

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Aria is a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without instrumental or orchestral accompaniment, normally part of a larger work.

Aria is a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without instrumental or orchestral accompaniment, normally part of a larger work.

The farewell aria of Sultan Bazajet in Handel's opera Tamerlano. (Note the da capo instruction.) First edition, London, 1719.
Gluck in a 1775 portrait by Joseph Duplessis
Title page of the Goldberg Variations (first edition, 1741)

The typical context for arias is opera, but vocal arias also feature in oratorios and cantatas, or they can be stand-alone concert arias.

Cover of a 1921 libretto for Giordano's Andrea Chénier

Libretto

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Cover of a 1921 libretto for Giordano's Andrea Chénier
The composer of Cavalleria rusticana, Pietro Mascagni, flanked by his librettists, Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci
Pages from an 1859 libretto for Ernani, with the original Italian lyrics, English translation and musical notation for one of the arias
Henry Purcell (1659–1695), whose operas were written to English libretti
Poster for La figlia di Iorio where the librettist, Gabriele D'Annunzio, is given top billing

A libretto (Italian for "booklet") is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

This score for Handel's Lascia ch'io pianga shows the simple accompaniment for a recitative; much of the time, the basso continuo (the lower staff in bass clef) play half notes and whole notes underneath the vocalist's recitative part.

Recitative

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This score for Handel's Lascia ch'io pianga shows the simple accompaniment for a recitative; much of the time, the basso continuo (the lower staff in bass clef) play half notes and whole notes underneath the vocalist's recitative part.

Recitative (, also known by its Italian name "recitativo" ) is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms and delivery of ordinary speech.