operaopera singeroperasoperaticopera companybaroque operaopera singersgrand operacompanyopera companies

Libretto

librettolibrettistlibretti
Such a "work" (the literal translation of "opera") is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costumes, and sometimes dance or ballet.
"booklet") is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

Musical theatre

musicalmusical theatremusicals
Originally understood as an entirely sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique.
Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements.

Opéra comique

opéra comiqueopéra-comiqueopéras comiques
Originally understood as an entirely sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique.
Opéra comique (plural: opéras comiques) is a genre of French opera that contains spoken dialogue and arias.

Recitative

recitativerecitativessecco recitative
In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias.
Recitative (, also known by its Italian name "recitativo" ) is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech.

Number opera

number opera
In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias.
A number opera (opera a numeri; Nummeroper) is an opera consisting of individual pieces of music ('numbers') which can be easily extracted from the larger work.

Origins of opera

Opera originatedearly history of operaorigins of opera
Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri's mostly lost Dafne, produced in Florence in 1598) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, and Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
The art form known as opera originated in Italy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, though it drew upon older traditions of medieval and Renaissance courtly entertainment.

Theatre

theatretheaterstage
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere ) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
The art forms of ballet and opera are also theatre and use many conventions such as acting, costumes and staging.

Opera house

opera houseopera houseshouse
The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.

George Frideric Handel

HandelGeorge Frideric HandelHändel
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe (except France), attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born Georg Friedrich Händel ; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) [(N.S.) 5 March] – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.

Singspiel

singspielsingspieleSong-play
Originally understood as an entirely sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique.
A Singspiel (plural: Singspiele; literally "sing-play") is a form of German-language music drama, now regarded as a genre of opera.

Gioachino Rossini

RossiniGioachino RossiniGioacchino Rossini
The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.

Giacomo Meyerbeer

MeyerbeerGiacomo MeyerbeerMeyerbeer, Giacomo
It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer.
Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.

Grand opera

grand operagrand opéraItalian grand opera
It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer.
Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.

Giuseppe Verdi

VerdiGiuseppe VerdiVerdi’s
The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera, led and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

Vincenzo Bellini

BelliniVincenzo BelliniBellini, Vincenzo
The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed.
Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer, who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".

Dafne

original operaDAFNE, in music
Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri's mostly lost Dafne, produced in Florence in 1598) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, and Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
Dafne is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an opera.

Heinrich Schütz

SchützHeinrich SchützH. Schütz
Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri's mostly lost Dafne, produced in Florence in 1598) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, and Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
He wrote what is traditionally considered to be the first German opera, Dafne, performed at Torgau in 1627, the music of which has since been lost.

Don Giovanni

Donna AnnaDon GiovanniZerlina
The most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio), and The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte), landmarks in the German tradition.
Don Giovanni (K. 527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punished, namely Don Giovanni or The Libertine Punished) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte.

Giacomo Puccini

PucciniGiacomo PucciniPuccini’s
The popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".

The Magic Flute

Die ZauberflöteTaminoQueen of the Night
The most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio), and The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte), landmarks in the German tradition.
The Magic Flute (German: Die Zauberflöte ), K. 620, is an opera in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder.

Russian opera

RussianRussiaoperatic arias
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe, particularly in Russia and Bohemia.
Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера Rússkaya ópera) is the art of opera in Russia.

Verismo (music)

verismoverismo operaveristic
The popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
In opera, verismo (, from vero, meaning "true") was a post-Romantic operatic tradition associated with Italian composers such as Pietro Mascagni, Ruggero Leoncavallo, Umberto Giordano, Francesco Cilea and Giacomo Puccini.

Die Entführung aus dem Serail

The Abduction from the SeraglioBelmonteKonstanze
The most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio), and The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte), landmarks in the German tradition.
Die Entführung aus dem Serail ( German: [ˈdɪ ʔɛntˈfyːʁʊŋ aʊ̯s dem zɛˈʁaɪ̯l]) (K. 384; The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is an opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Richard Strauss

Richard StraussStraussR. Strauss
The popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra, Die Frau ohne Schatten and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; his tone poems, including Don Juan, Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Also sprach Zarathustra, Ein Heldenleben, Symphonia Domestica, and An Alpine Symphony; and other instrumental works such as Metamorphosen and his Oboe Concerto.

Classical music

classicalclassical musicWestern classical music
Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition.
Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass.