Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating systemoperating-systemsystemoperating system (OS)desktop operating systemOSesOSsoperation system
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.wikipedia
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System software

systems softwareSystem utilitysystem
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Examples of system software include operating systems like macOS and Windows, computational science software, game engines, industrial automation, and software as a service applications.

Daemon (computing)

daemondaemonsservices
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon ( or ) is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user.

Microsoft Windows

WindowsPCWin
The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

MacOS

Mac OS XMacOS X
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%).
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

Linux

GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating system
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%). Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds.

Mobile operating system

mobile platformsmobilemobile operating systems
In the mobile (smartphone and tablet combined) sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
A mobile operating system (or mobile OS) is an operating system for phones, tablets, smartwatches, or other mobile devices.

System call

syscallcallaccess
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on. This may include hardware-related services (for example, accessing a hard disk drive), creation and execution of new processes, and communication with integral kernel services such as process scheduling.

Linux distribution

distributiondistributionsLinux
Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.

AmigaOS

AmigaWorkbenchoperating system
Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking.
AmigaOS is a family of proprietary native operating systems of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers.

Solaris (operating system)

SolarisSun SolarisSolaris operating system
Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

Glossary of operating systems terms

templating
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system, then saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines.
This page is a glossary of Operating systems terminology.

Windows Embedded Compact

Windows CECEMicrosoft Windows CE
Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.
Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE and Windows CE, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products.

Real-time operating system

real-timeRTOSreal time
A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is any operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.

MINIX 3

MinixMINIX 3 kernelRocky Raccoon
Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.
MINIX 3 is a project to create a small, high availability, high functioning Unix-like operating system.

Embedded operating system

Embeddedembedded applicationsembedded operating systems
Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems.
An embedded operating system is an operating system for embedded computer systems.

Supercomputer

high-performance computingsupercomputinghigh performance computing
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers.
The Atlas operating system swapped data in the form of pages between the magnetic core and the drum.

Software

computer softwaresoftware technologyprogram
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Later machines came with libraries of programs, which would be linked to a user's program to assist in operations such as input and output and generating computer code from human-readable symbolic code.
Operating systems which are essential collections of software that manage resources and provides common services for other software that runs "on top" of them. Supervisory programs, boot loaders, shells and window systems are core parts of operating systems. In practice, an operating system comes bundled with additional software (including application software) so that a user can potentially do some work with a computer that only has one operating system.

Single address space operating system

single address spaceSingle address-spacesingle large address space
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments.
In computer science, a single address space operating system (or SASOS) is an operating system that provides only one globally shared address space for all processes.

Batch processing

batchbatch jobbatch mode
Through the 1950s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems on mainframe computers, including batch processing, input/output interrupt, buffering, multitasking, spooling, runtime libraries, link-loading, and programs for sorting records in files.
The computer's operating system, which pre-scans and deciphers the JCL, optimizes the sequencing of this and other jobs

Per Brinch Hansen

Brinch Hansen Brinch Hansen, Per
Brinch Hansen described it as "the most significant breakthrough in the history of operating systems."
Per Brinch Hansen (November 13, 1938 – July 31, 2007) was a Danish-American computer scientist known for his work in operating systems, concurrent programming and parallel and distributed computing.

Tablet computer

tabletstablettablet PC
In the mobile (smartphone and tablet combined) sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
In 2001, Ericsson Mobile Communications announced an experimental product named the DelphiPad, which was developed in cooperation with the Centre for Wireless Communications in Singapore, with a touch-sensitive screen, Netscape Navigator as a web browser, and Linux as its operating system.

OS/360 and successors

OS/360MVTOS
During the 1960s, IBM's OS/360 introduced the concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line, which was crucial for the success of the System/360 machines.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.

History of IBM mainframe operating systems

FORTRAN Monitor Systemdistant descendantsFMS
IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system and applications written for OS/360 can still be run on modern machines.
Arguably the operating systems which IBM supplied to customers for use on its early mainframes have seldom been very innovative, except for the virtual machine systems beginning with CP-67.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%.
Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems.

Assembly language

assemblerassemblyassembly code
Later machines came with libraries of programs, which would be linked to a user's program to assist in operations such as input and output and generating computer code from human-readable symbolic code.
A cross assembler (see also cross compiler) is an assembler that is run on a computer or operating system (the host system) of a different type from the system on which the resulting code is to run (the target system). Cross-assembling facilitates the development of programs for systems that do not have the resources to support software development, such as an embedded system. In such a case, the resulting object code must be transferred to the target system, either via read-only memory (ROM, EPROM, etc.) or a data link using an exact bit-by-bit copy of the object code or a text-based representation of that code, such as Motorola S-record or Intel HEX.