Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating systemoperating-systemoperating system (OS)systemdesktop operating systemoperation systemOSsOSes
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.wikipedia
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System software

systems softwareSystem utilitysystem
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.
Examples of system software include operating systems like macOS, Ubuntu (a Linux distribution) and Microsoft Windows, computational science software, game engines, industrial automation, and software as a service applications.

Daemon (computing)

daemondaemonsservices
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.
In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon ( or ) is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user.

Microsoft Windows

WindowsPCMS Windows
The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%.
Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several non-free graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed and sold by Microsoft.

MacOS

Mac OS XOS XMac
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%).
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of non-free graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

Linux

GNU/LinuxLinux on the desktopLin
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%). Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking.
Linux is a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds.

System call

syscallcallaccess
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%.
Software for personal computers is typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or operating system manufacturers.

Linux distribution

Linux distributionsdistributiondistributions
Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.

AmigaOS

Amiga OSAmigaWorkbench
Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking.
AmigaOS is a family of proprietary native operating systems of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers.

Solaris (operating system)

SolarisSolaris 10Sun Solaris
Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking.
Solaris is a non-free Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

Glossary of operating systems terms

templating
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system, then saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines.
This page is a glossary of Operating systems terminology.

Windows Embedded Compact

Windows CEWinCEWindows CE 3.0
Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.
Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE and Windows CE, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products.

Real-time operating system

RTOSreal-timereal time operating system
A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.

MINIX 3

MinixMINIX 3 kernelMINIX3
Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.
MINIX 3 is a project to create a small, high availability, high functioning Unix-like operating system.

Embedded operating system

EmbeddedEmbedded operating systemsembedded applications
Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems.
An embedded operating system is an operating system for embedded computer systems.

Supercomputer

high-performance computinghigh performance computingsupercomputing
Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers.
The Atlas operating system swapped data in the form of pages between the magnetic core and the drum.

Single address space operating system

single address spaceSingle address space architectureSingle address-space
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments.
In computer science, a single address space operating system (or SASOS) is an operating system that provides only one globally shared address space for all processes.

Per Brinch Hansen

Brinch HansenBrinch Hansen, PerEdison
Brinch Hansen described it as "the most significant breakthrough in the history of operating systems."
Per Brinch Hansen (November 13, 1938 – July 31, 2007) was a Danish-American computer scientist known for his work in operating systems, concurrent programming and parallel and distributed computing.

Assembly language

assemblerassemblyassembly code
Later machines came with libraries of programs, which would be linked to a user's program to assist in operations such as input and output and generating computer code from human-readable symbolic code.
Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture and sometimes to an operating system.

Software

Computer softwareSoftware & Programmingsoftware technology
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. Later machines came with libraries of programs, which would be linked to a user's program to assist in operations such as input and output and generating computer code from human-readable symbolic code.
**Operating systems

Batch processing

batchbatch jobbatch mode
Through the 1950s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems on mainframe computers, including batch processing, input/output interrupt, buffering, multitasking, spooling, runtime libraries, link-loading, and programs for sorting records in files.
Programs called monitors, the forerunners of operating systems, were developed which could process a series, or "batch", of programs, often from magnetic tape prepared offline.

OS/360 and successors

OS/360MVTOS/MVT
During the 1960s, IBM's OS/360 introduced the concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line, which was crucial for the success of the System/360 machines.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.

History of IBM mainframe operating systems

FORTRAN Monitor Systemdistant descendantsFMS
IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system and applications written for OS/360 can still be run on modern machines.
Arguably the operating systems which IBM supplied to customers for use on its early mainframes have seldom been very innovative, except for the virtual machine systems beginning with CP-67.

Tablet computer

tabletstabletTablet PC
In the mobile (including smartphones and tablets) sector, Google Android's share is up to 70% in the year 2017.
An essential feature of a 2-in-1 is a desktop operating system, such as Windows 10, as opposed to a mobile operating system.

DOS/360 and successors

DOS/360DOS/VSTOS/360
Other operating systems used on IBM S/360 series mainframes included systems developed by IBM: COS/360 (Compatibility Operating System), DOS/360 (Disk Operating System), TSS/360 (Time Sharing System), TOS/360 (Tape Operating System), BOS/360 (Basic Operating System), and ACP (Airline Control Program), as well as a few non-IBM systems: MTS (Michigan Terminal System), MUSIC (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing), and ORVYL (Stanford Timesharing System).
Disk Operating System/360, also DOS/360, or simply DOS, is a discontinued operating system for IBM mainframes.