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Thirteenth Air Force

13th Air ForceThirteenthUnited States Thirteenth Air Force
The Commanding General, 13th USAF, was in command of the Joint Task Force.
In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo buried Clark Air Base, Philippines, in volcanic ash, leading to the evacuation of military personnel and their families in Operation Fiery Vigil, eventually forcing the base to close 26 November 1991.

Mount Pinatubo

Mt. Pinatubo1991 eruption of Mount PinatuboPinatubo
Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.
The United States Air Force initiated a massive airlift effort to evacuate American service members and their families from the two affected bases during and immediately following the eruption, named Operation Fiery Vigil.

Andersen Air Force Base

North FieldAndersen AFBAndersen Field
The vast majority were evacuated to Andersen Air Force Base, Guam and processed for return to the continental United States.
With the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991, Andersen was instrumental in caring for American evacuees and their pets as a part of Operation Fiery Vigil.

List of mass evacuations

largest evacuations
List of mass evacuations
June 1991 – Operation Fiery Vigil was the evacuation of roughly 20,000 non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay back to CONUS during the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

Emergency evacuation

evacuationevacuatedevacuate
Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

United States Department of Defense

Department of DefenseU.S. Department of DefenseDoD
Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

Clark Air Base

Clark FieldClarkClark AB
Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay

Subic BaySubic Bay Naval BaseSubic
Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesextinct volcano
Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

Philippines

🇵🇭FilipinoPhilippine
Operation Fiery Vigil was the emergency evacuation of all non-essential military and United States Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay during the June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

Military operations other than war (US)

military operations other than warnoncombatant evacuation operationOperations Other Than War
This noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) resulted in the transfer of roughly 20,000 people from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay back to CONUS, by way of Cebu, Philippines.

Contiguous United States

continental United Stateslower 48mainland
This noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) resulted in the transfer of roughly 20,000 people from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay back to CONUS, by way of Cebu, Philippines.

Cebu

Cebu IslandCebu, PhilippinesCebú
This noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) resulted in the transfer of roughly 20,000 people from Clark Air Base and U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay back to CONUS, by way of Cebu, Philippines.

Task force

task grouptask unitJoint Task Force
The Commanding General, 13th USAF, was in command of the Joint Task Force.

1990 Luzon earthquake

earthquakeLuzon earthquake1990 earthquake
16 July 1990: a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck the island of Luzon, Philippines. The epicenter was near the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, roughly 60 kilometers from Mount Pinatubo. This earthquake caused a landslide, some local tremors, and a brief increase in steam emissions from a preexisting geothermal area at Mount Pinatubo.

Luzon

Luzon Islandnorthern LuzonNorth Luzon
16 July 1990: a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck the island of Luzon, Philippines. The epicenter was near the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, roughly 60 kilometers from Mount Pinatubo. This earthquake caused a landslide, some local tremors, and a brief increase in steam emissions from a preexisting geothermal area at Mount Pinatubo.

Epicenter

epicentreepicentralcentered
16 July 1990: a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck the island of Luzon, Philippines. The epicenter was near the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, roughly 60 kilometers from Mount Pinatubo. This earthquake caused a landslide, some local tremors, and a brief increase in steam emissions from a preexisting geothermal area at Mount Pinatubo.

Rizal, Nueva Ecija

Rizal
16 July 1990: a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck the island of Luzon, Philippines. The epicenter was near the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, roughly 60 kilometers from Mount Pinatubo. This earthquake caused a landslide, some local tremors, and a brief increase in steam emissions from a preexisting geothermal area at Mount Pinatubo.

Hotspot (geology)

hotspothotspotshot spot
16 July 1990: a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck the island of Luzon, Philippines. The epicenter was near the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, roughly 60 kilometers from Mount Pinatubo. This earthquake caused a landslide, some local tremors, and a brief increase in steam emissions from a preexisting geothermal area at Mount Pinatubo.

Magma

magmaticmeltmagmas
March–early June 1991: magma rising toward the surface from more than 32 kilometers beneath Mount Pinatubo triggered small earthquakes and caused powerful steam explosions that blasted three craters on the north flank of the volcano. Thousands of small earthquakes occurred beneath Pinatubo, and many thousands of tons of sulfur dioxide gas were emitted by the volcano.

Sulfur dioxide

sulphur dioxideSO 2 SO2
March–early June 1991: magma rising toward the surface from more than 32 kilometers beneath Mount Pinatubo triggered small earthquakes and caused powerful steam explosions that blasted three craters on the north flank of the volcano. Thousands of small earthquakes occurred beneath Pinatubo, and many thousands of tons of sulfur dioxide gas were emitted by the volcano.

Types of volcanic eruptions

volcanic eruptioneruptionvolcanic eruptions
7 June 1991: the first magmatic eruptions took place, resulting in the formation of a 660 ft high lava dome at the summit of the volcano.

Lava dome

lava domesdomecryptodome
7 June 1991: the first magmatic eruptions took place, resulting in the formation of a 660 ft high lava dome at the summit of the volcano.

Summit

peakmountain peakpeaks
7 June 1991: the first magmatic eruptions took place, resulting in the formation of a 660 ft high lava dome at the summit of the volcano.

United States Secretary of Defense

Secretary of DefenseDefense SecretaryU.S. Secretary of Defense
10 June 1991: after receiving final authorization from the Secretary of Defense, all non-essential military and Department of Defense civilian personnel and their dependents initiated land evacuation from Clark Air Base at 0600 local time. This land evacuation brought an estimated 15,000 personnel and several thousand vehicles onto U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay.