Operation Reinhard

Aktion ReinhardAktion ReinhardtOperation ReinhardtAction ReinhardAction ReinhardtEinsatz ReinhardtOperation ''ReinhardReinhardthe most deadly phase "Aktion Reinhard
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt; also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename of the secretive World War II German plan to exterminate Poland's Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland.wikipedia
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Belzec extermination camp

BelzecBełżecBełżec extermination camp
As many as two million Jews were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka to be put to death in purpose-built gas chambers. On 13 October 1941, SS and Police Leader Odilo Globočnik headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the first killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
Bełżec was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.

Sobibor extermination camp

SobiborSobibórSobibór extermination camp
As many as two million Jews were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka to be put to death in purpose-built gas chambers.
Sobibor was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS as part of Operation Reinhard.

Treblinka extermination camp

TreblinkaTreblinka concentration campTreblinka II
As many as two million Jews were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka to be put to death in purpose-built gas chambers.
The camp operated between 23 July 1942 and 19 October 1943 as part of Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the Final Solution.

Majdanek concentration camp

MajdanekMaidanekMajdanek extermination camp
In addition, mass-killing facilities, using Zyklon B, were developed at about the same time at the Majdanek concentration camp and at Auschwitz II-Birkenau, near the earlier-established Auschwitz I camp for ethnically Polish prisoners.
Although initially purposed for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to kill people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Jews within their own General Government territory of Poland.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
This deadliest phase of the Holocaust was marked by the introduction of extermination camps.
The Germans set up six extermination camps in Poland in 1941–1942: Auschwitz II-Birkenau, Majdanek, Chełmno, and the three Operation Reinhard camps: Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka.

Christian Wirth

Wirth
The SS officers responsible for the Aktion T4, including Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, and Irmfried Eberl, were all given key roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution" in 1942.
Christian Wirth (24 November 1885 – 26 May 1944) was a German policeman and SS officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland, known as Operation Reinhard.

Aktion T4

Action T4T-4 Euthanasia Programeuthanasia
The organizational apparatus behind the new extermination plan had been put to the test already during the euthanasia Aktion T4 programme ending in August 1941, which resulted in the murders of more than 70,000 Polish and German disabled men, women, and children.
Technology developed under Aktion T4 was taken over by the medical division of the Reich Interior Ministry, particularly the use of lethal gas to kill large numbers of people, along with the personnel of Aktion T4, who participated in Operation Reinhard.

Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

occupied Polandoccupation of PolandGerman-occupied Poland
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt; also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename of the secretive World War II German plan to exterminate Poland's Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland.
The extermination program was codenamed Operation Reinhard.

Franz Stangl

Stangl
The SS officers responsible for the Aktion T4, including Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, and Irmfried Eberl, were all given key roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution" in 1942.
He was the commandant of the Sobibór and Treblinka extermination camps during the Operation Reinhard phase of the Holocaust.

Odilo Globočnik

Odilo GlobocnikGlobocnikGauleiter'' Globocnik
On 13 October 1941, SS and Police Leader Odilo Globočnik headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the first killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland.
As an associate of Adolf Eichmann, he had a leading role in Operation Reinhard, which saw the murder of over one million mostly Polish Jews during the Holocaust in Nazi extermination camps Majdanek, Treblinka, Sobibór and Bełżec.

Extermination camp

death campsdeath campextermination camps
This deadliest phase of the Holocaust was marked by the introduction of extermination camps.
The Nazi Endlösung der Judenfrage (The Final Solution of the Jewish Question), based on the systematic killing of Europe's Jews by gassing, began during Operation Reinhard, after the onset of the Nazi-Soviet war of June 1941.

SS-Totenkopfverbände

TotenkopfverbändeSSDeath's Head Units
All highly secretive orders he received came directly from Himmler and not from SS-Gruppenführer Richard Glücks, head of the greater Nazi concentration camp system, which was run by the SS-Totenkopfverbände and engaged in slave labour for the war effort.
The extermination camps' function was genocide; they included Treblinka, Bełżec, and Sobibór built specifically for Aktion Reinhard, as well as the original Chełmno extermination camp, and Majdanek which was fitted with mass killing facilities, along with Auschwitz.

Chełmno extermination camp

ChełmnoChelmno extermination campChelmno
The techniques used to deceive victims and the camps' overall layout were based on a pilot project of mobile killing conducted at the Chełmno extermination camp (Kulmhof), which began operating in late 1941 and used gas vans.
It operated from December 8 1941 – April 11 1943, parallel to Operation Reinhard during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, and again from June 23 1944 – January 18 1945 during the Soviet counter-offensive.

Höfle Telegram

1942 recordGermany's own estimationTelegram
Yet another spelling (Einsatz Reinhart) was used in the Höfle Telegram.
The Telegram contains the detailed statistics on the 1942 killings of Jews in the extermination camps of Operation Reinhard including at Belzec (B), Sobibor (S), Treblinka (T), and at Lublin-Majdanek (L).

Erich Fuchs

With two powerful engines, run by SS-Scharführer Erich Fuchs, and the gas chambers soon rebuilt of bricks and mortar, this death factory had killed between 800,000 and 1,200,000 people within 15 months, disposed of their bodies, and sorted their belongings for shipment to Germany.
Erich Fuchs (9 April 1902 – 25 July 1980) was an SS functionary who worked for the Action T4 euthanasia program, and for the Operation Reinhard phase of the Holocaust.

Austria under National Socialism

AustriaAustria in the time of National SocialismAustrian
The new network of Nazi concentration camps built by SS in Germany (including Austria), Poland, and elsewhere in Europe began exploiting foreign captives in the war industry.

History of the Jews in Poland

Polish JewsPolish-JewishJewish
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt; also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename of the secretive World War II German plan to exterminate Poland's Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland.
With the decision of Nazi Germany to begin the Final Solution, the destruction of the Jews of Europe, Aktion Reinhard began in 1942, with the opening of the extermination camps of Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka, followed by Auschwitz-Birkenau where people were killed in gas chambers and mass executions (death wall).

Gas chamber

gas chambersgassedlethal gas
As many as two million Jews were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka to be put to death in purpose-built gas chambers.
The Operation Reinhard extermination camps at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka used exhaust fumes from stationary diesel engines.

General Government

occupied PolandGeneralgouvernementPoland
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt; also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename of the secretive World War II German plan to exterminate Poland's Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland.
The newly drafted Operation Reinhard would be a major step in the systematic liquidation of the Jews in occupied Europe, beginning with those in the General Government.

World War II evacuation and expulsion

resettlementWorld War II-era population transfersexpulsions
Mass deportations were called "resettlement actions"; they were organised by special Commissioners, and conducted by uniformed police battalions from Orpo and Schupo in an atmosphere of terror.
The Holocaust also involved deportations and expulsions of Jews aside from the subsequent genocide perpetrated by Nazi Germany under the auspices of Aktion Reinhard.

Irmfried Eberl

The SS officers responsible for the Aktion T4, including Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, and Irmfried Eberl, were all given key roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution" in 1942.
On 11 July 1942, Eberl was transferred to command of Treblinka as part of Operation Reinhard.

Karl Streibel

Streibel
The bulk of the actual labour at each "final solution" camp was performed by up to 100 mostly Ukrainian Trawniki guards, recruited by SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl Streibel from among the Soviet prisoners of war, and by up to a thousand Sonderkommando prisoners whom the Trawniki guards used to terrorise.
The Trawniki men (German: Trawnikimänner) took part in Operation Reinhard, the Nazi extermination of Jews.

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
Heydrich himself had spelled his first name both Reinhard and Reinhardt throughout the 1930s according to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler.
Himmler took over leadership of the RSHA and stepped up the pace of the killing of Jews in Aktion Reinhard (Operation Reinhard), named in Heydrich's honour.

Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
After the German-Soviet war began, the Nazis decided to undertake the European-wide Final Solution to the Jewish Question.
From July 1942, the mass murder of Polish and foreign Jews took place at Treblinka as part of Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the Final Solution.

Cremation

crematedcrematoriaashes
It was a testing ground for the establishment of faster methods of killing and incinerating people, marked by the construction of stationary facilities for the mass murder a few months later.
The efficiency of industrialised killing of Operation Reinhard during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust produced too many corpses, therefore the crematoria manufactured to SS specifications were put into use in all of them to handle the disposals around the clock, day and night.