Operation Torch

invasion of North AfricaAllied invasion of North AfricaAllied landings in North AfricaNorth AfricaOperation ''TorchTorchAlgeria-French MoroccoNorth African landingsAllied landingsNorth African invasion
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942) was an Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War.wikipedia
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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight EisenhowerEisenhowerPresident Eisenhower
The American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, commanding the operation, planned a three-pronged attack on Casablanca (Western), Oran (Center) and Algiers (Eastern), then a rapid move on Tunis.
He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful Invasion of Normandy in 1944–45 from the Western Front.

Vichy France

Vichy FrenchVichy regimeVichy government
The French colonies in the area were dominated by the Vichy French, formally aligned Germany but with mixed loyalties. The Allies planned an Anglo-American invasion of north-western Africa/Maghreb—Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, territory nominally in the hands of the Vichy French government.
Following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy to protect the Mediterranean coastline.

François Darlan

Admiral DarlanDarlanJean Darlan
The success of Torch caused Admiral François Darlan, commander of the Vichy French forces to order co-operation with the Allies, in return for being retained as High Commissioner, with many other Vichy officials keeping their jobs.
When the Allies invaded French North Africa in 1942, Darlan was the highest-ranking officer there, and a deal was made, giving him control of North African French forces in exchange for joining their side.

Casablanca

Casablanca, MoroccoCasa BlancaDar-el-Beida
The American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, commanding the operation, planned a three-pronged attack on Casablanca (Western), Oran (Center) and Algiers (Eastern), then a rapid move on Tunis.
Operation Torch, which started on 8 November 1942, was the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African campaign of World War II.

Oran

Oran, AlgeriaWahranOrán
The American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, commanding the operation, planned a three-pronged attack on Casablanca (Western), Oran (Center) and Algiers (Eastern), then a rapid move on Tunis.
The Vichy government held Oran during World War II until its capture by the Allies in late 1942, during Operation Torch.

Second Battle of El Alamein

El AlameinBattle of El AlameinSecond Battles of El Alamein
With British forces advancing from Egypt, this would eventually allow the Allies to carry out a pincer operation against Axis forces in North Africa.
The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

Algiers

Algiers, AlgeriaAlgerAlgerine
The American General Dwight D. Eisenhower, commanding the operation, planned a three-pronged attack on Casablanca (Western), Oran (Center) and Algiers (Eastern), then a rapid move on Tunis. The Allies believed that the Vichy French forces would not fight, partly because of information supplied by American Consul Robert Daniel Murphy in Algiers.
During World War II, Algiers was the first city to be seized from the Germans by the Allies during Operation Torch.

George S. Patton

George PattonGeneral PattonPatton
A Western Task Force (aimed at Casablanca) was composed of American units, with Major General George S. Patton in command and Rear Admiral Henry Kent Hewitt heading the naval operations.
Patton led U.S. troops into the Mediterranean theater with an invasion of Casablanca during Operation Torch in 1942, and soon established himself as an effective commander through his rapid rehabilitation of the demoralized U.S. II Corps.

Allies of World War II

AlliedAlliesAllied forces
The Allies planned an Anglo-American invasion of north-western Africa/Maghreb—Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, territory nominally in the hands of the Vichy French government.

Attack on Mers-el-Kébir

Operation Catapultdestruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-KebirMers-el-Kebir
However, they harbored suspicions that the Vichy French navy would bear a grudge over the British attack on Mers-el-Kebir in 1940.
On 27 November 1942, after the Allied invasion of French North Africa, the French navy foiled Operation Anton, a German and Italian attempt to capture the rest of the French fleet by the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon.

9th Infantry Division (United States)

9th Infantry Division9th9th Division
This Western Task Force consisted of the U.S. 2nd Armored Division and the U.S. 3rd and 9th Infantry Divisions—35,000 troops in a convoy of over 100 ships.
Americal on Guadalcanal, and, alongside the 9th in North Africa, were the 1st Infantry, 3rd Infantry and the 2nd Armored Divisions.) The 9th saw its first combat on 8 November 1942, when its elements landed at Algiers, Safi, and Port Lyautey, with the taking of Safi by the 3rd Battalion of the 47th Infantry Regiment standing as the first liberation of a city from Axis control in World War II.

Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski

Mieczysław SłowikowskiMieczyslaw Zygfryd Slowikowski
In July 1941, Mieczysław Słowikowski (using the codename "Rygor"—Polish for "Rigor") set up "Agency Africa", one of the Second World War's most successful intelligence organizations.
Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski (Jazgarzew, near Warsaw, 1896–1989, London), also known as "Rygor-Słowikowski," was a Polish Army officer whose intelligence work in North Africa facilitated Allied preparations for the 1942 Operation Torch landings.

Henri Giraud

General GiraudGiraudGeneral Henri Giraud
With help from the Resistance, the Allies also succeeded in slipping French General Henri Giraud out of Vichy France on HMS Seraph—passing itself off as an American submarine—intending to offer him the post of commander in chief of French forces in North Africa after the invasion.
From within Vichy France he worked with the Allies in secret, and assumed command of French troops in North Africa after Operation Torch (November 1942) following the assassination of François Darlan.

Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer)

Kenneth AndersonSir Kenneth AndersonKenneth Arthur Noel Anderson
) In reality, the Eastern Task Force—aimed at Algiers—was commanded by Lieutenant-General Kenneth Anderson and consisted of a brigade from the British 78th and the U.S. 34th Infantry Divisions, along with two British commando units (No. 1 and No. 6 Commandos), together with the RAF Regiment providing 5 squadrons of infantry and 5 Light anti-aircraft flights, totalling 20,000 troops.
He is mainly remembered as the commander of the British First Army during Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa and the subsequent Tunisian Campaign.

Robert Daniel Murphy

Robert MurphyRobert D. Murphy
The Allies believed that the Vichy French forces would not fight, partly because of information supplied by American Consul Robert Daniel Murphy in Algiers.
In autumn of 1942, at President Franklin Roosevelt's behest, Murphy investigated conditions in French North Africa in preparation for the Allied landings, Operation Torch, the first major Western Allied ground offensive during World War II.

3rd Infantry Division (United States)

3rd Infantry Division3rd Division3d Infantry Division
This Western Task Force consisted of the U.S. 2nd Armored Division and the U.S. 3rd and 9th Infantry Divisions—35,000 troops in a convoy of over 100 ships.
The 3rd Division, under the command of Major General Jonathan W. Anderson, after spending many months training in the United States after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, first saw action during the war as a part of the Western Task Force in Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa, landing at Fedala on 8 November 1942, and captured half of French Morocco.

No. 1 Commando

No. 111 Commando
) In reality, the Eastern Task Force—aimed at Algiers—was commanded by Lieutenant-General Kenneth Anderson and consisted of a brigade from the British 78th and the U.S. 34th Infantry Divisions, along with two British commando units (No. 1 and No. 6 Commandos), together with the RAF Regiment providing 5 squadrons of infantry and 5 Light anti-aircraft flights, totalling 20,000 troops.
Operationally they carried out a series of small scale cross channel raids and spearheaded the Operation Torch landings in North Africa.

No. 6 Commando

6 Commandos6th Commando BattalionNo 6 Commando
) In reality, the Eastern Task Force—aimed at Algiers—was commanded by Lieutenant-General Kenneth Anderson and consisted of a brigade from the British 78th and the U.S. 34th Infantry Divisions, along with two British commando units (No. 1 and No. 6 Commandos), together with the RAF Regiment providing 5 squadrons of infantry and 5 Light anti-aircraft flights, totalling 20,000 troops.
6 Commando took part in was Operation Torch, the Allied landings in Algeria in November 1942.

George Marshall

George C. MarshallMarshallGeneral George C. Marshall
Senior US commanders remained strongly opposed to the landings and after the western Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) met in Washington on 30 July, General George Marshall and Admiral Ernest King declined to approve the plan.
In consequence, Army forces deploying to Africa in Operation Torch suffered serious initial reverses when encountering German armored combat units in Africa in the Battle of Kasserine Pass and other major battles.

509th Infantry Regiment (United States)

509th Parachute Infantry Battalion509th Infantry Regiment509th Parachute Infantry Regiment
The Center Task Force, aimed at Oran, included the U.S. 2nd Battalion, 509th Parachute Infantry Regiment, the U.S. 1st Infantry Division, and the U.S. 1st Armored Division—a total of 18,500 troops.
In summer 1942, Allied forces were completing the task of planning Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, with the 2nd Battalion, 503rd PIR scheduled to take the lead and make the first combat jump.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942) was an Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War.
This attack was followed up shortly after by Anglo-American landings in French North Africa, which resulted in the region joining the Allies.

2nd Armored Division (United States)

2nd Armored DivisionU.S. 2nd Armored Division2d Armored Division
This Western Task Force consisted of the U.S. 2nd Armored Division and the U.S. 3rd and 9th Infantry Divisions—35,000 troops in a convoy of over 100 ships.
They were part of the Western Task Force of Operation Torch, which landed at Casablanca in French Morocco on 8 November 1942.

Spain during World War II

Spain in World War IISpainOperation Ilona
The Combined Chiefs of Staff, however, were concerned that should Operation Torch precipitate Spain to abandon neutrality and join the Axis, the Straits of Gibraltar could be closed cutting the entire Allied force's lines of communication.
In 1942, the planning of Operation Torch (American landings in North Africa) was considerably influenced by the apprehension that it might precipitate Spain to abandon neutrality and join the Axis, in which case the Straits of Gibraltar might be closed.

William Welsh (RAF officer)

William WelshW L WelshWilliam Lawrie Welsh
Aerial operations were split into two, east of Cape Tenez in Algeria, with British aircraft under Air Marshal Sir William Welsh and west of Cape Tenez, all American aircraft under Major General Jimmy Doolittle, under the direct command of Major General Patton.
Air Marshal Sir William Lawrie Welsh, (10 February 1891 – 2 January 1962) was a Royal Air Force officer who commanded British air operations during Operation Torch.

33rd Operations Group

33d Fighter Group33rd Fighter Group33d Tactical Group
P-40s of the 33rd Fighter Group were launched from U.S. Navy escort carriers and landed at Port Lyautey on 10 November.
After being redesignated the 33d Fighter Group, it moved to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations in November 1942 as part of Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, flying its planes to its first base in Morocco from the aircraft carrier USS Chenango of the United States Navy.