Operational - Replacement Training Units

Operational Training UnitOperationalOperational Training Unit and Replacement Training UnitReplacement Training Unit
Operational Training Units (OTU) and Replacement Training Units (RTU) were training organizations of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Unlike the schools of the Army Air Forces Training Command (AAFTC), OTU-RTU units were operational units of the four domestic numbered air forces along with I Troop Carrier Command and Air Transport Command, with the mission of final phase training new pilots or crews.wikipedia
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I Troop Carrier Command

Air Transport CommandAir Transport Command (later I Troop Carrier Command)
Unlike the schools of the Army Air Forces Training Command (AAFTC), OTU-RTU units were operational units of the four domestic numbered air forces along with I Troop Carrier Command and Air Transport Command, with the mission of final phase training new pilots or crews.
The Operational - Replacement Training Units (OTU-RTU) system of operational training, which was used in the fighter and bombardment training programs, was also adopted for troop carrier instruction.

Army Air Forces Training Command

AAF Flying Training CommandAir Corps Flying Training CommandArmy Air Corps
Unlike the schools of the Army Air Forces Training Command (AAFTC), OTU-RTU units were operational units of the four domestic numbered air forces along with I Troop Carrier Command and Air Transport Command, with the mission of final phase training new pilots or crews.
=: see also: Operational - Replacement Training Units

348th Night Fighter Squadron

348th
In October, the first two dedicated night fighter training squadrons, the 348th and 349th Night Fighter Squadrons were formed.
* Operational - Replacement Training Units

349th Night Fighter Squadron

In October, the first two dedicated night fighter training squadrons, the 348th and 349th Night Fighter Squadrons were formed.
* Operational - Replacement Training Units

420th Flight Test Flight

420th Air Refueling Squadron420th Night Fighter Squadron420th Flight Test Squadron
The school at Kissimmee was expanded with a third OTU, the 420th Night Fighter Squadron at Dunnellon Army Air Field.
Operational - Replacement Training Units

481st Night Fighter Operational Training Group

On 15 July 1943, the 481st Night Fighter Operational Training Group was activated to give the school better organizational structure.
* Operational - Replacement Training Units

424th Tactical Air Support Training Squadron

424th Night Fighter Squadron424th
Also a second RTU was established in November when the 424th Night Fighter Squadron was formed.
* Operational - Replacement Training Units

United States Army Air Forces

USAAFArmy Air ForcesU.S. Army Air Forces
Operational Training Units (OTU) and Replacement Training Units (RTU) were training organizations of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Gen. Follett Bradley, commanding III Bomber Command, to his superior at Third Air Force that an OTU system be instituted in the Air Force Combat Command (which had the responsibility for training new AAF units) as a means of having sufficient experienced personnel to train newly activated groups while not degrading the proficiency of groups headed for combat.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Operational Training Units (OTU) and Replacement Training Units (RTU) were training organizations of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.

United States Army Air Corps

Army Air CorpsAir CorpsU.S. Army Air Corps
When the Army Air Corps began its great expansion program in 1939, no provision for operational training existed outside the combat groups themselves.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
This method was developed after World War I, and was used successfully in the peacetime Air Corps of the 1920s and 1930s.

Robert B. Williams (general)

Robert B. Williams
Major Robert B. Williams, an Air Corps observer in England between September 1940 and January 1941 who later commanded the Second Air Force and a bombardment division of the Eighth, reported favorably to the Office of the Chief of Air Corps on the merits of the Royal Air Force's operational training unit (OTU) system.

Second Air Force

2nd Air Force2d Air ForceSecond
Major Robert B. Williams, an Air Corps observer in England between September 1940 and January 1941 who later commanded the Second Air Force and a bombardment division of the Eighth, reported favorably to the Office of the Chief of Air Corps on the merits of the Royal Air Force's operational training unit (OTU) system.

Eighth Air Force

8th Air ForceEighthVIII Bomber Command
Major Robert B. Williams, an Air Corps observer in England between September 1940 and January 1941 who later commanded the Second Air Force and a bombardment division of the Eighth, reported favorably to the Office of the Chief of Air Corps on the merits of the Royal Air Force's operational training unit (OTU) system.

Royal Air Force

RAFairmanBritish
Major Robert B. Williams, an Air Corps observer in England between September 1940 and January 1941 who later commanded the Second Air Force and a bombardment division of the Eighth, reported favorably to the Office of the Chief of Air Corps on the merits of the Royal Air Force's operational training unit (OTU) system.

III Bomber Command

3 Bomber (later, III Bomber) Command3d Bomber Command
Gen. Follett Bradley, commanding III Bomber Command, to his superior at Third Air Force that an OTU system be instituted in the Air Force Combat Command (which had the responsibility for training new AAF units) as a means of having sufficient experienced personnel to train newly activated groups while not degrading the proficiency of groups headed for combat.

Third Air Force

3rd Air Force3d Air ForceThird
Gen. Follett Bradley, commanding III Bomber Command, to his superior at Third Air Force that an OTU system be instituted in the Air Force Combat Command (which had the responsibility for training new AAF units) as a means of having sufficient experienced personnel to train newly activated groups while not degrading the proficiency of groups headed for combat. The plan was largely adopted by AFCC in February 1942 to direct operational training in the Second and Third Air Forces, where the bulk of new units were being activated, but by May the AFCC had been dissolved as an extraneous echelon of command and the OTU system was extended by Headquarters AAF to the First and Fourth Air Forces for training new fighter groups.

First Air Force

1st Air ForceFirstAFNORTH
The plan was largely adopted by AFCC in February 1942 to direct operational training in the Second and Third Air Forces, where the bulk of new units were being activated, but by May the AFCC had been dissolved as an extraneous echelon of command and the OTU system was extended by Headquarters AAF to the First and Fourth Air Forces for training new fighter groups.

Fourth Air Force

4th Air ForceFourth4 Air Force
The plan was largely adopted by AFCC in February 1942 to direct operational training in the Second and Third Air Forces, where the bulk of new units were being activated, but by May the AFCC had been dissolved as an extraneous echelon of command and the OTU system was extended by Headquarters AAF to the First and Fourth Air Forces for training new fighter groups.

Orlando, Florida

OrlandoOrlando, FLFlorida
Beginning in 1943, cadre leaders received standardized training through a thirty-day course of instruction at the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics (AAFSAT) in Orlando, Florida, established in November 1942 partly for this purpose.

United States Air Force

Air ForceU.S. Air ForceUSAF
Despite some resistance, the experiment was destined to leave its mark on postwar organization of the United States Air Force (USAF).

Hobson Plan

wing base organizationwing base organization systemwing base reorganization
By mid-1948 with the adoption by the USAF of the Hobson Plan Wing-Base organization (as opposed to the AFBU Base organization), the AFBUs were discontinued or redesignated in favor of new USAF four-digit "table of distribution units" established by USAF or the Major Command.

Boeing B-29 Superfortress

B-29B-29 SuperfortressB-29s
Toward the end of the war the scope of responsibility of each Air Force changed when Second Air Force was assigned the B-29 Superfortress very heavy bombardment OTU/RTU training mission; subsequently the B-17/B-24 heavy bombardment RTUs were transferred to Third and Forth Air Forces.

V Fighter Command

V Fighter2d Interceptor Command
In order to accommodate this, II Fighter Command took over some P-51 Mustang RTU training from Fourth Air Force and Third Air Force transferred medium and light bomber RTUs along the Atlantic coast to the First Air Force.

Japanese archipelago

Home IslandsJapanese Home IslandsJapanese islands
II Fighter Command concentrated on training P-51 pilots on over-water very long range escorting of B-29 groups and also on the ground attack missions used to strafe Japanese airfields while the B-29s were over the Japanese Home Islands during their bombing attacks.