Ophthalmic artery

ophthalmicartery to the eyeLateral muscular branchophthalmic arteriesophthalmic surgeryThe ophthalmic artery
The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus.wikipedia
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Lacrimal artery

lacrimal
The next branch of the OA is the lacrimal artery, one of the largest, arises just as the OA enters the orbit and runs along the superior edge of the lateral rectus muscle to supply the lacrimal gland, eyelids and conjunctiva.
The lacrimal artery is an artery that arises close to the optic foramen, and is one of the largest branches derived from the ophthalmic artery.

Optic canal

optic foramenCanalis opticuseye sockets
The OA arises from the internal carotid along the medial side of the anterior clinoid process and runs anteriorly passing through the optic canal with and inferolaterally to the optic nerve.
The superior surface of the sphenoid bone is bounded behind by a ridge, which forms the anterior border of a narrow, transverse groove, the chiasmatic groove (optic groove), above and behind which lies the optic chiasma; the groove ends on either side in the optic foramen, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery (with accompanying sympathetic nerve fibres) into the orbital cavity.

Supraorbital artery

supraorbitalsupra-orbitalSupra-orbital artery
The supraorbital artery branches from the OA as it passes over the optic nerve.
It springs from the ophthalmic artery as that vessel is crossing over to the medial side of the optic nerve.

Anterior ethmoidal artery

anteriorAnterior meningeal arteryanterior ethmoid artery
The OA continues anteriorly, giving off the anterior ethmoidal artery which enters the nose after traversing the anterior ethmoidal canal and supplies the anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses, as well as the frontal sinus and also enters the cranium to supply the meninges.
Once it branches from the ophthalmic artery, it accompanies the nasociliary nerve through the anterior ethmoidal canal to supply the anterior and middle ethmoidal cells, frontal sinus, and anterosuperior aspect of the lateral nasal wall.

Eyelid

eyelidspalpebralpalpebra
The next branch of the OA is the lacrimal artery, one of the largest, arises just as the OA enters the orbit and runs along the superior edge of the lateral rectus muscle to supply the lacrimal gland, eyelids and conjunctiva.
The arches are formed by anastomoses of the lateral palpebral arteries and medial palpebral arteries, branching off from the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery, respectively.

Extraocular muscles

extraocular muscleeye muscleseye muscle
The OA continues medially the superior and inferior muscular branches arise either from the OA or a single trunk from the OA subsequently divides into superior and inferior branches to supply the extraocular muscles.
The extraocular muscles are supplied mainly by branches of the ophthalmic artery.

Supratrochlear artery

supratrochlearFrontal arteryArteria supratrochlearis
The supratrochlear artery (or frontal artery), one of the terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery, branches off where the ophthalmic artery travels posterior to the trochlea.

Lacrimal gland

lacrimal glandslacrimaltear glands
The next branch of the OA is the lacrimal artery, one of the largest, arises just as the OA enters the orbit and runs along the superior edge of the lateral rectus muscle to supply the lacrimal gland, eyelids and conjunctiva.
The lacrimal artery, derived from the ophthalmic artery supplies the lacrimal gland.

Dorsal nasal artery

dorsal nasal branchnasal artery
It is one of the two terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery.

Posterior ethmoidal artery

posterior ethmoidalposterior ethmoidal arteriesposterior ethmoidal vessels
The posterior ethmoidal artery enters the nose via the posterior ethmoidal canal and supplies the posterior ethmoidal sinuses and enters the skull to supply the meninges.
Once branching from the ophthalmic artery, it passes between the upper border of the medial rectus muscle and superior oblique muscle to enter the posterior ethmoidal canal.

Ciliary arteries

posterior ciliary arteriesciliary artery
The OA then turns medially, giving off 1 to 5 posterior ciliary arteries (PCA) that subsequently branch into the long and short posterior ciliary arteries (LPCA and SPCA respectively) which perforate the sclera posteriorly in the vicinity of the optic nerve and macula to supply the posterior uveal tract.

Short posterior ciliary arteries

The short posterior ciliary arteries from six to twelve in number, arise from the ophthalmic artery as it crosses the optic nerve.

Internal carotid artery

internal carotid arteriesinternal carotidinternal
The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus.
The clinoid segment normally has no named branches, though the ophthalmic artery may arise from the clinoid segment.

Central retinal artery

retinal arteryretinal arteriesCentral artery of retina
The central retinal artery is the first, and one of the smaller branches of the OA and runs in the dura mater inferior to the optic nerve.
The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its dural sheath to the eyeball.

Long posterior ciliary arteries

long
The long posterior ciliary arteries are arteries of the head arising, together with the other ciliary arteries, from the ophthalmic artery.

Anterior ciliary arteries

Anterior ciliary artery
They are derived from the muscular branches of the ophthalmic artery.

Amaurosis fugax

Temporary vision losstransient visual loss in one eye
Amaurosis fugax is a temporary loss of vision that occurs in two conditions which cause a temporary reduction in ophthalmic artery pressure: orthostatic hypotension and positive acceleration.
With respect to embolic and hemodynamic causes, this transient monocular visual loss ultimately occurs due to a temporary reduction in retinal artery, ophthalmic artery, or ciliary artery blood flow, leading to a decrease in retinal circulation which, in turn, causes retinal hypoxia.

Medial palpebral arteries

inferior palpebral arterysuperior palpebralsuperior palpebral artery
They are two in number, superior and inferior, arise from the ophthalmic, opposite the pulley of the Obliquus superior.

Superior ophthalmic vein

superiorAnterior ethmoidal veinposterior ethmoidal vein
The superior ophthalmic vein begins at the inner angle of the orbit in a vein named the nasofrontal which communicates anteriorly with the angular vein; it does not pursue the same course as the ophthalmic artery (which instead passes through the optic canal) and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of that vessel.

Ocular ischemic syndrome

retinal artery occlusionretinal ischemiaRetinal vascular occlusion
Severe occlusion of the ophthalmic artery causes ocular ischemic syndrome.
Prevention of vision loss requires that certain conditions be met: the treatment be started before irreversible damage has occurred (over 24 hours), the occlusion must not also occur at the ophthalmic artery, and treatment must continue until the inner layers of the retina are again oxygenated by the retinal arteries.

Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

levator palpebrae superiorislevator palpebraeLevator palpebræ superioris

Fluorescein angiography

fluorescent angiographyFluorescein Angiogramangiography
*Fluorescein angiography
Fluorescein enters the ocular circulation from the internal carotid artery via the ophthalmic artery.