Opioid

opioidsopioid analgesicendogenous opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid antagonistsopioid receptor agonistnarcotic analgesicnarcoticsOpiatesOpioid analgesics
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.wikipedia
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Opioid receptor

opioid receptorsopioidopiate receptor
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, suppressing opioid induced constipation, as well as for executions in the United States.
Opioid use disorder is a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes significant impairment or distress.

Opioid overdose

heroin overdoseoverdosedrug overdose
Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, suppressing opioid induced constipation, as well as for executions in the United States.
An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids.

Fentanyl

fentanyl citratefentanyl intranasalfentanyl, cocaine
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins. While all opioids cause constipation, there are some differences between drugs, with studies suggesting tramadol, tapentadol, methadone and fentanyl may cause relatively less constipation, while with codeine, morphine, oxycodone or hydromorphone constipation may be comparatively more severe. Certain opioids such as fentanyl, morphine and diamorphine (heroin) tend to be particularly sedating, while others such as oxycodone, tilidine and meperidine (pethidine) tend to produce comparatively less sedation, but individual patients responses can vary markedly and some degree of trial and error may be needed to find the most suitable drug for a particular patient.
Fentanyl (also spelled fentanil) is an opioid used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia.

Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opium
Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum). Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.

Naloxone

NarcaninjectionNaloxone (1961)
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins. It is defined by the development of withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued, when the dose is reduced abruptly or, specifically in the case of opioids, when an antagonist (e.g., naloxone) or an agonist-antagonist (e.g., pentazocine) is administered.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.

Hydrocodone

dihydrocodeinoneVicodin
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.

Opioid peptide

endogenous opioidopioid peptidesopioid
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenparacetamol (acetaminophen)acetaminophen (paracetamol)
In treating chronic pain, opioids are an option to be tried after other less risky pain relievers have been considered, including paracetamol/acetaminophen or NSAIDs like ibuprofen or naproxen.
In combination with opioid pain medication, paracetamol is also used for severe pain such as cancer pain and pain after surgery.

Loperamide

Imodiumloperamide (Imodium)loperamide hydrochloride
Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other opioids from binding to those receptors.
It is an opioid with no significant absorption from the gut and does not cross the blood–brain barrier when used at normal doses.

Methadone

Methadone treatmentAmidonesFizzies
Research suggests that when methadone is used long-term it can build up unpredictably in the body and lead to potentially deadly slowed breathing. While all opioids cause constipation, there are some differences between drugs, with studies suggesting tramadol, tapentadol, methadone and fentanyl may cause relatively less constipation, while with codeine, morphine, oxycodone or hydromorphone constipation may be comparatively more severe.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used for opioid maintenance therapy in opioid dependence, and for pain.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
Side effects of opioids may include itchiness, sedation, nausea, respiratory depression, constipation, and euphoria.
Medications associated with constipation include opioids, certain antacids, calcium channel blockers, and anticholinergics.

Chronic pain

chronicpainchronic, often intermittent pain
Opioids are being used more frequently in the management of non-malignant chronic pain.
Some people with chronic pain may benefit from opioid treatment while others are harmed.

Drug withdrawal

withdrawalwithdrawal symptomswithdrawal syndrome
Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal.
For example, prolonged use of an antidepressant medication is likely to cause a much different reaction when discontinued compared to discontinuation of an opioid, such as heroin.

Narcotic

narcoticsdrugsdrug
The terms opiate and narcotic are sometimes encountered as synonyms for opioid.
In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
These receptors mediate both the psychoactive and the somatic effects of opioids.
Depressants ("downers"), including sedatives, hypnotics, and opioids. This category includes all of the calmative, sleep-inducing, anxiety-reducing, anesthetizing substances, which sometimes induce perceptual changes, such as dream images, and also often evoke feelings of euphoria.

Opioid-induced hyperalgesia

opiates
4) Long-term opioid use can cause opioid-induced hyperalgesia, which is a condition in which the patient has increased sensitivity to pain.
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia, is a phenomenon associated with the long-term use of opioids such as morphine, oxycodone, and methadone.

Fibromyalgia

fibrositismuscular rheumatismfibromyalgia syndrome
Guidelines have suggested that the risk of opioids is likely greater than their benefits when used for most non-cancer chronic conditions including headaches, back pain, and fibromyalgia.
Use of opioid pain medication is controversial, with some stating their use is poorly supported by evidence and others saying that weak opioids may be reasonable if other medications are not effective.

Ketamine

Special KCalypsolK
NMDA antagonists, such as dextromethorphan, ketamine, and memantine.
Ketamine is an analgesic that is most effective when used alongside a low-dose opioid; because, while it does have analgesic effects by itself, the doses required for adequate pain relief when it is used as the sole analgesic agent are considerably higher and far more likely to produce disorienting side effects.

Pentazocine

(+)-pentazocinePentazocine lactateTalwin PX
It is defined by the development of withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued, when the dose is reduced abruptly or, specifically in the case of opioids, when an antagonist (e.g., naloxone) or an agonist-antagonist (e.g., pentazocine) is administered.
As such it is called an opioid as it delivers its effects on pain by interacting with the opioid receptors.

Tramadol

Ultram ER
While all opioids cause constipation, there are some differences between drugs, with studies suggesting tramadol, tapentadol, methadone and fentanyl may cause relatively less constipation, while with codeine, morphine, oxycodone or hydromorphone constipation may be comparatively more severe.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.

Tilidine

cis-TilidineTilidate
Certain opioids such as fentanyl, morphine and diamorphine (heroin) tend to be particularly sedating, while others such as oxycodone, tilidine and meperidine (pethidine) tend to produce comparatively less sedation, but individual patients responses can vary markedly and some degree of trial and error may be needed to find the most suitable drug for a particular patient.
Tilidine, or tilidate (brand names: Tilidin, Valoron and Valtran) is a synthetic opioid painkiller, used mainly in Germany, Switzerland, South Africa and Belgium for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic.

Tapentadol

While all opioids cause constipation, there are some differences between drugs, with studies suggesting tramadol, tapentadol, methadone and fentanyl may cause relatively less constipation, while with codeine, morphine, oxycodone or hydromorphone constipation may be comparatively more severe.
Tapentadol (brand names: Nucynta, Palexia, Yantil, Tapenta and Tapal) is a centrally acting opioid analgesic of the benzenoid class with a dual mode of action as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor and as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI).

Pain

physical painacute painnociceptive pain
Opioids are effective for the treatment of acute pain (such as pain following surgery).
Management of breakthrough pain can entail intensive use of opioids, including fentanyl.

Hydromorphone

dilaudiddihydromorphinonedilaudide
While all opioids cause constipation, there are some differences between drugs, with studies suggesting tramadol, tapentadol, methadone and fentanyl may cause relatively less constipation, while with codeine, morphine, oxycodone or hydromorphone constipation may be comparatively more severe.
Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally-acting pain medication of the opioid class.