Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesicendogenous opioidsNarcotic analgesicopioid antagonistsopioid receptor agonistsynthetic opioidsynthetic opioidsnarcotics
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.wikipedia
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Opioid receptor

opioid receptorsopioidopiate receptor
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, as well as for executions in the United States.
Opioid use disorder is a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes significant impairment or distress.

Opioid overdose

heroin overdoseopioid-overdoseoverdose
Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, as well as for executions in the United States.
An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids.

Hydrocodone

TussionexHycodandihydrocodeinone
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins.
Hydrocodone, sold under the brand name Hysingla among others, is an opioid used to treat severe pain of a prolonged duration, if other measures are not sufficient.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins. Certain opioids such as fentanyl, morphine and diamorphine (heroin) tend to be particularly sedating, while others such as oxycodone, tilidine and meperidine (pethidine) tend to produce comparatively less sedation, but individual patients responses can vary markedly and some degree of trial and error may be needed to find the most suitable drug for a particular patient.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia.

Naloxone

NarcanNaloxone hydrochlorideEvzio
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins. It is defined by the development of withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued, when the dose is reduced abruptly or, specifically in the case of opioids, when an antagonist (e.g., naloxone) or an agonist-antagonist (e.g., pentazocine) is administered.
Naloxone, sold under the brand name Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids.

Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opium
Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself.
Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.

Opioid peptide

endogenous opioidopioid peptidesopioid
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenPanadolTylenol PM
In treating chronic pain, opioids are an option to be tried after other less risky pain relievers have been considered, including paracetamol/acetaminophen or NSAIDs like ibuprofen or naproxen.
Paracetamol is also used for severe pain, such as cancer pain and pain after surgery, in combination with opioid pain medication.

Physical dependence

dependencedrug dependencyphysical
Long-term use can cause tolerance, meaning that increased doses are required to achieve the same effect, and physical dependence, meaning that abruptly discontinuing the drug leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.
Abrupt withdrawal from other drugs, such as opioids can cause an extremely painful withdrawal that is very rarely fatal in patients of general good health and with medical treatment, but is more often fatal in patients with weakened cardiovascular systems; toxicity is generally caused by the often-extreme increases in heart rate and blood pressure (which can be treated with clonidine), or due to arrhythmia due to electrolyte imbalance caused by the inability to eat, and constant diarrhea and vomiting (which can be treated with loperamide and ondansetron respectively) associated with acute opioid withdrawal, especially in longer-acting substances where the diarrhea and emesis can continue unabated for weeks, although life-threatening complications are extremely rare, and nearly non-existent with proper medical management.

Methadone

Methadone treatmentAmidonAmidones
Research suggests that when methadone is used long-term it can build up unpredictably in the body and lead to potentially deadly slowed breathing.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used for opioid maintenance therapy in opioid dependence and for chronic pain management.

Loperamide

Imodiumloperamide (Imodium)loperamide hydrochloride
Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other opioids from binding to those receptors.
It is an opioid with no significant absorption from the gut and does not cross the blood–brain barrier when used at normal doses.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
Side effects of opioids may include itchiness, sedation, nausea, respiratory depression, constipation, and euphoria.
Medications associated with constipation include opioids, certain antacids, calcium channel blockers, and anticholinergics.

Drug withdrawal

withdrawalwithdrawal symptomswithdrawal syndrome
Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal.
For example, prolonged use of an antidepressant medication is likely to cause a much different reaction when discontinued compared to discontinuation of an opioid, such as heroin.

Narcotic

narcoticsdrugsnarcotic drugs
The terms opiate and narcotic are sometimes encountered as synonyms for opioid.
In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex.

Chronic pain

chronicpainChronic pain syndrome
Opioids are being used more frequently in the management of non-malignant chronic pain.
Some people with chronic pain may benefit from opioid treatment while others are harmed.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
These receptors mediate both the psychoactive and the somatic effects of opioids.
The subjective experience of pain is primarily regulated by endogenous opioid peptides.

Naloxegol

Movantik
Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other opioids from binding to those receptors.
Naloxegol (INN; PEGylated naloxol; trade names Movantik and Moventig) is a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, licensed from Nektar Therapeutics, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation.

Pain

physical painacute painnociceptive pain
Opioids are effective for the treatment of acute pain (such as pain following surgery).
Management of breakthrough pain can entail intensive use of opioids, including fentanyl.

Drug overdose

overdoseoverdosingoverdosed
An overdose or concurrent use with other depressant drugs like benzodiazepines commonly results in death from respiratory depression.
The distribution of naloxone to injection drug users and other opioid drug users decreases the risk of death from overdose.

Opioid-induced hyperalgesia

opiates
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia, is a phenomenon associated with the long-term use of opioids such as morphine, oxycodone, and methadone.

Fibromyalgia

fibrositisFibromyalgia syndromemuscular rheumatism
Guidelines have suggested that the risk of opioids is likely greater than their benefits when used for most non-cancer chronic conditions including headaches, back pain, and fibromyalgia.
Use of opioid pain medication is controversial, with some stating their usefulness is poorly supported by evidence and others saying that weak opioids may be reasonable if other medications are not effective.

Ketamine

K-holeSpecial KCalypsol
Ketamine is an analgesic that is most effective when used alongside a low-dose opioid; because, while it does have analgesic effects by itself, the doses required for adequate pain relief when it is used as the sole analgesic agent are considerably higher and far more likely to produce disorienting side effects.

Pentazocine

Talwin(+)-pentazocinePentazocine lactate
It is defined by the development of withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued, when the dose is reduced abruptly or, specifically in the case of opioids, when an antagonist (e.g., naloxone) or an agonist-antagonist (e.g., pentazocine) is administered.
As such it is called an opioid as it delivers its effects on pain by interacting with the opioid receptors.

Tilidine

cis-TilidineTilidate
Certain opioids such as fentanyl, morphine and diamorphine (heroin) tend to be particularly sedating, while others such as oxycodone, tilidine and meperidine (pethidine) tend to produce comparatively less sedation, but individual patients responses can vary markedly and some degree of trial and error may be needed to find the most suitable drug for a particular patient.
Tilidine, or tilidate (brand names: Tilidin, Valoron and Valtran) is a synthetic opioid painkiller, used mainly in Germany, Switzerland, South Africa and Belgium for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic.