Opioid epidemic in the United States

opioid crisisopioid epidemican addiction crisis in the U.S.epidemic of opioid abuseheroin and opioid epidemicongoing opioid crisis in Americaopioid addictionopioid drugmakersOpioid Epidemic,Opioid treatment program
The opioid epidemic (also known as the opioid crisis) refers to the extensive overuse of opioid drugs, both from medical prescriptions and from illegal sources.wikipedia
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Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
The opioid epidemic (also known as the opioid crisis) refers to the extensive overuse of opioid drugs, both from medical prescriptions and from illegal sources.
This new initiative is part of the FDA's continued efforts to address the nationwide opioid crisis (see below) and aims to help decrease unnecessary exposure to opioids and prevent new addiction.

Purdue Pharma

Purdue Pharma Canada
Purdue Pharma hosted over forty promotional conferences at three select locations in the southwest and southeast of the United States.
Although the company shifted its focus to abuse-deterrent formulations, Purdue continued to market and sell opioids, and continued to be involved in lawsuits around the opioid epidemic in the United States.

The New England Journal of Medicine

New England Journal of MedicineNEJMBoston Medical and Surgical Journal
A brief letter published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in January 1980, titled "Addiction Rare in Patients Treated with Narcotics", generated much attention and changed this thinking.

Crack epidemic in the United States

crack epidemiccrack cocaine epidemicAmerican crack epidemic
In the mid-to-late 1980s, the crack epidemic followed widespread cocaine use in American cities.

Johnson & Johnson

Johnson and JohnsonJohnson & Johnson CorporationBiosense Webster
By 2018, the company had become embroiled in the opioid epidemic in the United States and had become a target of lawsuits.

Medical prescription

prescriptionprescriptionsprescribed
The opioid epidemic (also known as the opioid crisis) refers to the extensive overuse of opioid drugs, both from medical prescriptions and from illegal sources.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
These, along with a much stronger synthetic opioid, fentanyl, have made them popular as medical treatments after surgery.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
With heroin, an illegal street opioid, they have become recreational drugs, despite the high risk of addiction and overdose.

Cannabis (drug)

marijuanacannabispot
Teen abuse of opioids has been noticeably increasing since 2006, using prescription drugs more than any illicit drug except marijuana; more than cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine combined.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
In the mid-to-late 1980s, the crack epidemic followed widespread cocaine use in American cities. Teen abuse of opioids has been noticeably increasing since 2006, using prescription drugs more than any illicit drug except marijuana; more than cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine combined.

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
Teen abuse of opioids has been noticeably increasing since 2006, using prescription drugs more than any illicit drug except marijuana; more than cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine combined.

Presidency of Barack Obama

Obama administrationBarack Obama administrationadministration
In 2011, the Obama administration began to deal with the crisis, and in 2016, President Barack Obama authorized millions of dollars in funding for opioid research and treatment, followed by Centers for Disease Control director, Dr. Thomas Frieden, stating that "America is awash in opioids; urgent action is critical."

Barack Obama

ObamaPresident ObamaPresident Barack Obama
In 2011, the Obama administration began to deal with the crisis, and in 2016, President Barack Obama authorized millions of dollars in funding for opioid research and treatment, followed by Centers for Disease Control director, Dr. Thomas Frieden, stating that "America is awash in opioids; urgent action is critical."

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDCCenters for Disease ControlCenter for Disease Control
In 2011, the Obama administration began to deal with the crisis, and in 2016, President Barack Obama authorized millions of dollars in funding for opioid research and treatment, followed by Centers for Disease Control director, Dr. Thomas Frieden, stating that "America is awash in opioids; urgent action is critical."

Prescription monitoring program

prescription drug monitoring programchanges to prescription-writingIllinois Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
As of April 2017, prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) exist in every state.

University of Florida

FloridaUFUniversity of Florida, Gainesville
A 2018 study by the University of Florida concluded that there is little evidence that drug-monitoring databases are having a positive effect on the number of drug overdoses in the U.S. Researcher Chris Delcher also concluded that "there was a concurrent rise in fatal overdoses from fentanyl, heroin and morphine" due to ease of availability and lower cost following prescription drug crackdowns.

American Medical Association

AMAAmerican Medical Association (AMA) American Medical Association
The American Medical Association (AMA) has created an Opioid Task Force for helping physicians to combat the epidemic.

Naloxone

NarcanNaloxone hydrochlorideEvzio
In 2017 alone, weekly filled naloxone prescriptions have doubled from 3,500 to 8,000 and more than 50,000 physicians were certified in 2017 to provide in-office buprenorphine. Popular treatments include kratom, naloxone, methadone, and buprenorphine, which are more effective when combined with a form of behavioral treatment.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Opioid dependence can lead to a number of consequences like contraction of HIV and overdose.

HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV-positiveHIV positive
Opioid dependence can lead to a number of consequences like contraction of HIV and overdose.

Drug overdose

overdoseoverdosingoverdosed
Opioid dependence can lead to a number of consequences like contraction of HIV and overdose. The epidemic began slowly in the United States, beginning in the late 1990s, and led to an enormous increase in opioid use in recent years, contributing to over 70,000 drug overdose deaths in the U.S. in 2018.

Mitragyna speciosa

kratomketumKratom (''Mitragyna speciosa'')
Popular treatments include kratom, naloxone, methadone, and buprenorphine, which are more effective when combined with a form of behavioral treatment.

Methadone

Methadone treatmentAmidonAmidones
Popular treatments include kratom, naloxone, methadone, and buprenorphine, which are more effective when combined with a form of behavioral treatment.

Webb v. United States

In Webb v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that doctors could no longer prescribe narcotics to aid in treating a narcotic use disorder.