Opioid overdose

A naloxone kit distributed in British Columbia, Canada
Fentanyl. 2 mg. A lethal dose in most people. Diameter of a US penny is 19.05 mm, or 0.75 inches.
Mu opioid receptor (a GPCR)
Drug overdose deaths in the US per 100,000 people by state.
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Toxicity due to excessive consumption of opioids, such as morphine, codeine, heroin, fentanyl, tramadol, and methadone.

- Opioid overdose

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Opioid use disorder

Substance use disorder relating to the use of an opioid.

Molecular structure of morphine
Material used for intravenous injection of opioids
Fentanyl 2 mg. A lethal dose in most people. Diameter of a US penny is 19.05 mm, or 0.75 inches.
Buprenorphine/naloxone tablet
Overdose deaths involving opioids, United States. Deaths per 100,000 population by year.
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Complications may include opioid overdose, suicide, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and problems at school, work, or home.

Codeine

Opiate and prodrug of morphine used to treat pain, coughing, and diarrhea.

The recreational drug lean can be created with codeine syrup (pictured).

Care should be used during breastfeeding, as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby.

Naloxone

Medication used to reverse the effects of opioids.

A naloxone kit as distributed in British Columbia, Canada

It is commonly used to counter decreased breathing in opioid overdose.

Hypoventilation

Compare hypopnea, bradypnea, and hyperventilation.

Graph showing normal as well as different kinds of pathological breathing patterns.

If the respiratory depression occurs from opioid overdose, usually an opioid antagonist, most likely naloxone, will be administered.

Opioid

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, and suppressing cough.

Drug overdose

Ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities much greater than are recommended.

A photograph showing a person who had overdosed
Timeline of US drug overdose death rates by race and ethnicity. Rate per 100,000 population.
Activated carbon is a commonly used agent for decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract in overdoses.
U.S. yearly overdose deaths from all drugs.<ref name="NIDA-deaths">Overdose Death Rates. And {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151128091723/http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates |date=2015-11-28}}. By National Institute on Drug Abuse.</ref>
U.S. yearly overdose deaths involving benzodiazepines.<ref name="NIDA-deaths" />
U.S. yearly overdose deaths involving cocaine.<ref name="NIDA-deaths" />
U.S. yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name="NIDA-deaths" />
U.S. overdose deaths involving all opioids. Deaths per 100,000 population.<ref name=CDC-opioids>Opioid Data Analysis and Resources. Drug Overdose. CDC Injury Center. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Click on "Rising Rates" tab for a graph. See data table below the graph.</ref>
U.S. yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name="NIDA-deaths" />
US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved. Among the 70,200 deaths in 2017, the sharpest increase occurred among deaths related to fentanyl and fentanyl analogs with 28,466 deaths.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

A person experiencing an opioid overdose might also have muscle spasms, seizures and decreased consciousness.

Μ-opioid receptor

The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.

Active and inactive μ-opioid receptors

Fatal opioid overdose typically occurs due to bradypnea, hypoxemia, and decreased cardiac output (hypotension occurs due to vasodilation, and bradycardia further contributes to decreased cardiac output).

Heroin

Opioid used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.

Heroin paraphernalia in a Jack Daniels tin
Advertising sign from Bayer for use in US drug stores, dating from before the federal prohibition of Heroin in 1924
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Heroin was found to be the second overall most dangerous drug.
Short-term effects of usage
Long-term effects of intravenous usage, including – and indeed primarily because of – the effects of the contaminants common in illegal heroin and contaminated needles.
Black tar heroin
Advertisement for Bayer Heroin
Bayer Heroin bottle
International drug routes
Afghanistan opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2016 (hectares)
Primary worldwide producers of heroin
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Heroin was ranked 1st in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Drug overdoses killed more than 70,200 in the US in 2017, with heroin involved in 15,482 of those deaths.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>{{cite web | url = http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | title = Overdose Death Rates | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20151128091723/http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | archive-date=28 November 2015 | work = National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) }}</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Heroin overdose is usually treated with the opioid antagonist, naloxone.

Prescription monitoring program

In the United States, prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) or prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are state-run programs which collect and distribute data about the prescription and dispensation of federally controlled substances and, depending on state requirements, other potentially abusable prescription drugs.

A naloxone kit distributed in British Columbia, Canada

PMPs are meant to help prevent adverse drug-related events such as opioid overdoses, drug diversion, and substance abuse by decreasing the amount and/or frequency of opioid prescribing, and by identifying those patients who are obtaining prescriptions from multiple providers (i.e., "doctor shopping") or those physicians overprescribing opioids.

Max Mosley

British racing driver, lawyer, and president of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), a non-profit association which represents the interests of motoring organisations and car users worldwide.

Mosley in 1969
Mosley's legal skills were frequently called on at March Engineering: one example was a contract dispute with Frank Costin, designer of the novel aerodynamics of the March 711 seen here.
Mosley pushed for the unusual six-wheeled March 2-4-0 designed by Robin Herd to be built because of its significant aerodynamic and other advantages. The car never raced, however sales of models of the car are said to make it the most profitable car the company ever made.
Three-times WTCC Champion Andy Priaulx wearing the HANS device now mandated in FIA championships
From the late 1960s to the early 2000s, F1 teams were heavily dependent on funding from cigarette companies like Rothmans. Mosley attempted to delay European legislation to outlaw the practice.
Mosley considered the use of F1 to promote Euro NCAP testing of cars his most enduring achievement as FIA president.
Formula One fans at the controversial 2005 United States Grand Prix, where only six cars raced, holding a banner with the words "Blame Mosley"

At an inquest on 10 June 2009, the Westminster coroner declared that he had died due to non-dependent drug abuse.