A report on Opioid use disorder

Molecular structure of morphine
Material used for intravenous injection of opioids
Fentanyl 2 mg. A lethal dose in most people. Diameter of a US penny is 19.05 mm, or 0.75 inches.
Buprenorphine/naloxone tablet
Overdose deaths involving opioids, United States. Deaths per 100,000 population by year.
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Substance use disorder relating to the use of an opioid.

- Opioid use disorder
Molecular structure of morphine

20 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Heroin paraphernalia in a Jack Daniels tin

Heroin

11 links

Opioid used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.

Opioid used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.

Heroin paraphernalia in a Jack Daniels tin
Advertising sign from Bayer for use in US drug stores, dating from before the federal prohibition of Heroin in 1924
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Heroin was found to be the second overall most dangerous drug.
Short-term effects of usage
Long-term effects of intravenous usage, including – and indeed primarily because of – the effects of the contaminants common in illegal heroin and contaminated needles.
Black tar heroin
Advertisement for Bayer Heroin
Bayer Heroin bottle
International drug routes
Afghanistan opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2016 (hectares)
Primary worldwide producers of heroin
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Heroin was ranked 1st in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Drug overdoses killed more than 70,200 in the US in 2017, with heroin involved in 15,482 of those deaths.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>{{cite web | url = http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | title = Overdose Death Rates | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20151128091723/http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | archive-date=28 November 2015 | work = National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) }}</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Treatment of heroin addiction often includes behavioral therapy and medications.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.

Opioid

9 links

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, and suppressing cough.

Buprenorphine

4 links

Buprenorphine patches in the pouch with packaging: A removed patch is shown on the left. In Britain, buprenorphine patches are named Butec 5, Butec 10, and so on.
A 2007 assessment of harm from recreational drug use (mean physical harm and mean dependence liability): Buprenorphine was ranked 9th in dependence, 8th in physical harm, and 11th in social harm.

Buprenorphine is an opioid used to treat opioid use disorder, acute pain, and chronic pain.

Brain positron emission tomography images that compare brain metabolism in a healthy individual and an individual with a cocaine addiction

Addiction

3 links

Neuropsychological disorder characterized by a persistent and intense urge to use a drug, despite substantial harm and other negative consequences.

Neuropsychological disorder characterized by a persistent and intense urge to use a drug, despite substantial harm and other negative consequences.

Brain positron emission tomography images that compare brain metabolism in a healthy individual and an individual with a cocaine addiction
Acute confusional state caused by alcohol withdrawal, also known as delirium tremens

Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, pornography addiction and sexual addiction.

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Street methadone was ranked 4th in dependence, 5th in physical harm, and 5th in social harm.

Methadone

3 links

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Street methadone was ranked 4th in dependence, 5th in physical harm, and 5th in social harm.
40 mg of methadone
Methadone
EDDP
EDMP

Methadone, sold under the brand names Dolophine and Methadose among others, is a synthetic opioid agonist used for chronic pain and also for opioid dependence.

Naltrexone

3 links

Naltrexone levels following a 50 mg oral dose of naltrexone at steady state during treatment with 50 mg/day naltrexone.
Naltrexone levels following a 380 mg dose of naltrexone in microspheres (Vivitrol) by intramuscular injection at steady state during monthly treatment with 380 mg naltrexone in microspheres.

Naltrexone, sold under the brand name Revia among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid use disorder by reducing cravings and feelings of euphoria associated with substance use disorder.

A naloxone kit distributed in British Columbia, Canada

Opioid overdose

3 links

Toxicity due to excessive consumption of opioids, such as morphine, codeine, heroin, fentanyl, tramadol, and methadone.

Toxicity due to excessive consumption of opioids, such as morphine, codeine, heroin, fentanyl, tramadol, and methadone.

A naloxone kit distributed in British Columbia, Canada
Fentanyl. 2 mg. A lethal dose in most people. Diameter of a US penny is 19.05 mm, or 0.75 inches.
Mu opioid receptor (a GPCR)
Drug overdose deaths in the US per 100,000 people by state.
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Risk factors for opioid overdose include high levels of opioid dependence, use of opioids via injection, high dosed opioid usage, having a mental disorder or having a predisposition for one, and use of opioids in combination with other substances, such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, or cocaine.

Mental health as a risk factor for illicit drug dependency or abuse.

Substance dependence

4 links

Biopsychological situation whereby an individual's functionality is dependent on the necessitated re-consumption of a psychoactive substance because of an adaptive state that has developed within the individual from psychoactive substance consumption that results in the experience of withdrawal and that necessitates the re-consumption of the drug.<ref name="NHM terms-DSM flaw"> A drug addiction, a distinct concept from substance dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.

Biopsychological situation whereby an individual's functionality is dependent on the necessitated re-consumption of a psychoactive substance because of an adaptive state that has developed within the individual from psychoactive substance consumption that results in the experience of withdrawal and that necessitates the re-consumption of the drug.<ref name="NHM terms-DSM flaw"> A drug addiction, a distinct concept from substance dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.

Mental health as a risk factor for illicit drug dependency or abuse.

304.00 Opioid dependence

Buprenorphine patches can deliver the opioid drug via A transdermal route, with long-lasting effects.

Opioid withdrawal

2 links

Set of symptoms arising from the sudden withdrawal or reduction of opioids where previous usage has been heavy and prolonged.

Set of symptoms arising from the sudden withdrawal or reduction of opioids where previous usage has been heavy and prolonged.

Buprenorphine patches can deliver the opioid drug via A transdermal route, with long-lasting effects.
Suboxone tablet (Buprenorphine) delivers the opioid drug through a sublingual route, giving fast onset of effects.

When withdrawal symptoms are due to recreational opioid use, the term opioid use disorder is used, whereas when due to prescribed medications, the term prescription opioid use disorder is used.

Substance use disorder

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Persistent use of drugs (including alcohol) despite substantial harm and adverse consequences as a result of their use.

Persistent use of drugs (including alcohol) despite substantial harm and adverse consequences as a result of their use.

The disability-adjusted life year, a measure of overall disease burden (number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death), from drug use disorders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004

Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; cannabis; phencyclidine and other hallucinogens, such as arylcyclohexylamines; inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.