Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addictopioid dependenceopioid withdrawalopiate addictionopioid abuseheroin withdrawalsubstitution therapyaddict
Opioid use disorder is a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes significant impairment or distress.wikipedia
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Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.
After a history of long-term use, withdrawal symptoms can begin within hours of last use.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.
If the dose is reduced after long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Methadone

Methadone treatmentAmidonesFizzies
Individuals with an opioid use disorders are often treated with opioid replacement therapy using methadone or buprenorphine.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used for opioid maintenance therapy in opioid dependence, and for pain.

Buprenorphine

SuboxonesubutexBuprenorphrine
Individuals with an opioid use disorders are often treated with opioid replacement therapy using methadone or buprenorphine.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodolpain killers
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.
Opioid withdrawal may occur if rapidly stopped.

Naltrexone

naltrexone hydrochlorideNaltrexone (1967)Vivitrex
The medication naltrexone may also be useful to prevent relapse.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.

Opioid overdose

heroin overdoseoverdosedrug overdose
Complications may include opioid overdose, suicide, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, marriage problems, or unemployment. Naloxone is useful for treating an opioid overdose and giving those at risk naloxone to take home is beneficial.
Risk factors for opioid overdose include opioid dependence, injecting opioids, using high doses of opioids, mental disorders, and use together with alcohol, benzodiazepines, or cocaine.

Naloxone

NarcaninjectionNaloxone (1961)
Naloxone is useful for treating an opioid overdose and giving those at risk naloxone to take home is beneficial. As of 2018 buprenorphine/naloxone is preferentially recommended, as the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone is believed to reduce the risk of abuse via injection or insufflation.
Administration to opioid-dependent individuals may cause symptoms of opioid withdrawal, including restlessness, agitation, nausea, vomiting, a fast heart rate, and sweating.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapycognitive behavior therapy
Additionally, individuals may benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy, other forms of support from mental health professionals such as individual or group therapy, twelve-step programs, and other peer support programs.
It is often recommended in combination with medications for treating other conditions, such as severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder, opioid use disorder, bipolar disorder and psychotic disorders.

Substance use disorder

addictionsubstance use disordersaddictive
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
Trouble sleeping
Use of or withdrawal from pain-relievers such as opioids.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction.

Withdrawal syndrome

Discontinuation syndrome
Symptoms of the disorder include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance to opioids, failure to fulfill obligations, trouble reducing use, and withdrawal syndrome with discontinuation.
Opioid withdrawal, symptoms seen with the cessation or rapid reduction of intake of opioid class drugs

Lofexidine

Clonidine or lofexidine can help treat the symptoms of withdrawal.
Lofexidine, sold under the brand name Lucemyra among others, is a medication historically used to treat high blood pressure, but more commonly used to help with the physical symptoms of opioid withdrawal.

Goose bumps

piloerectiongoose pimplesgooseflesh
Goose bumps
Piloerection is one of the signs of opioid withdrawal.

Clonidine

Pertenso
Clonidine or lofexidine can help treat the symptoms of withdrawal.
Clonidine is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.

Buprenorphine/naloxone

suboxoneBuprenorphine + Naloxone
As of 2018 buprenorphine/naloxone is preferentially recommended, as the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone is believed to reduce the risk of abuse via injection or insufflation.
In combination with counselling, it is used to treat opioid use disorder.

Hypoventilation

respiratory depressiondecreased breathinghypoventilating
Decreased breathing
However an opioid antagonist may also precipitate an opioid withdrawal syndrome in chronic users.

Heroin-assisted treatment

heroin maintenanceHeroin Assisted Treatmentdiamorphine maintenance
Evidence of effects of heroin maintenance compared to methadone are unclear as of 2010.
Heroin-assisted treatment, or diamorphine assisted treatment, refers to the prescribing of synthetic, injectable heroin to opiate addicts who do not benefit from or cannot tolerate treatment with one of the established drugs used in opiate replacement therapy like methadone or buprenorphine (brand name Subutex).

Opioid

opioidsopioid analgesicendogenous opioids
Opioid use disorder is a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes significant impairment or distress.
Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, suppressing opioid induced constipation, as well as for executions in the United States.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BDNFbrain derived neurotrophic factorbrain-derived neurotropic factor
Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) has been shown to mediate opioid-induced withdrawal symptoms via downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), protein kinase B (AKT), and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2).
Increased levels of BDNF can induce a change to an opiate-dependent-like reward state when expressed in the ventral tegmental area in rats.

Substance abuse

drug abuseabusedrug use
Prescription drug abuse
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.

CYP2B6

2B6CYP2B6 inhibitors
Methadone toxicity has been shown to be associated with specific phenotypes of CYP2B6.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.
304.00 Opioid dependence

Extended-release morphine

Oramorph SR
An extended-release morphine confers a possible reduction of opioid use and with fewer depressive symptoms but overall more adverse effects when compared to other forms of long-acting opioids.
According to a Cochrane review in 2013, extended-release morphine as a opioid replacement therapy for people with heroin addiction or dependence confers a possible reduction of opioid use and with fewer depressive symptoms but overall more adverse effects when compared to other forms of long-acting opioids.