Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addictopioid dependenceopioid withdrawalopiate addictionopioid abuseheroin withdrawalsubstitution therapyheroin dependence
Opioid use disorder is a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes significant impairment or distress.wikipedia
384 Related Articles

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.
After a history of long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms can begin within hours of the last use.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.
If the dose is reduced after long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Substance use disorder

addictionsubstance use disordersaddictive
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.
Drug classes that are involved in SUD include: alcohol; caffeine; cannabis; hallucinogens (such as arylcyclohexylamines); other hallucinogens (such as LSD); inhalants; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants; tobacco; and other or unknown substances.

Methadone

Methadone treatmentAmidonAmidones
Individuals with an opioid use disorder are often treated with opioid replacement therapy using methadone or buprenorphine.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used for opioid maintenance therapy in opioid dependence and for chronic pain management.

Buprenorphine

SubutexSuboxoneProbuphine
Individuals with an opioid use disorder are often treated with opioid replacement therapy using methadone or buprenorphine.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodalRoxicodone
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.
Opioid withdrawal may occur if rapidly stopped.

Naltrexone

Revianaltrexone hydrochlorideSinclair method
The medication naltrexone may also be useful to prevent relapse.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.

Hydrocodone

TussionexHycodandihydrocodeinone
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.
Rapidly decreasing the dose may result in opioid withdrawal.

Opioid overdose

heroin overdoseopioid-overdoseoverdose
Complications may include opioid overdose, suicide, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, marriage problems, or unemployment. Naloxone is useful for treating an opioid overdose and giving those at risk naloxone to take home is beneficial.
Risk factors for opioid overdose include opioid dependence, use of opioids by injection, use of high doses of opioids, mental disorders, and use of opioids together with alcohol, benzodiazepines, or cocaine.

Naloxone

NarcanNaloxone hydrochlorideEvzio
Naloxone is useful for treating an opioid overdose and giving those at risk naloxone to take home is beneficial. , buprenorphine/naloxone is preferentially recommended, as the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone is believed to reduce the risk of abuse via injection or insufflation.
Administration to opioid-dependent individuals may cause symptoms of opioid withdrawal, including restlessness, agitation, nausea, vomiting, a fast heart rate, and sweating.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
Additionally, individuals may benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy, other forms of support from mental health professionals such as individual or group therapy, twelve-step programs, and other peer support programs.
It is often recommended in combination with medications for treating other conditions, such as severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder, opioid use disorder, bipolar disorder and psychotic disorders.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.
Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include alcoholism, marijuana addiction, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opioid addiction, food addiction, video game addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction.

Withdrawal syndrome

Discontinuation syndrome
Symptoms of the disorder include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance to opioids, failure to fulfill obligations, trouble reducing use, and withdrawal syndrome with discontinuation.

Lofexidine

Clonidine or lofexidine can help treat the symptoms of withdrawal.
Lofexidine, sold under the brand name Lucemyra among others, is a medication historically used to treat high blood pressure, but more commonly used to help with the physical symptoms of opioid withdrawal.

Clonidine

Catapresclonidine hydrochlorideDuraclon
Clonidine or lofexidine can help treat the symptoms of withdrawal.
Clonidine, sold as the brand name Catapres among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug withdrawal (alcohol, opioids, or smoking), menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.

Goose bumps

piloerectiongoose pimplesgooseflesh
Piloerection is one of the signs of opioid withdrawal.

Buprenorphine/naloxone

SuboxoneBuprenorphine + Naloxone
, buprenorphine/naloxone is preferentially recommended, as the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone is believed to reduce the risk of abuse via injection or insufflation.
In combination with counselling, it is used to treat opioid use disorder.

Hypoventilation

respiratory depressiondecreased effort to breathedecreased breathing
However an opioid antagonist may also precipitate an opioid withdrawal syndrome in chronic users.

Heroin-assisted treatment

heroin maintenanceHeroin Assisted Treatmentdiamorphine maintenance
Evidence of effects of heroin maintenance compared to methadone are unclear as of 2010.
Heroin-assisted treatment, or diamorphine assisted treatment, refers to the prescribing of synthetic, injectable heroin to opiate addicts who do not benefit from or cannot tolerate treatment with one of the established drugs used in opiate replacement therapy like methadone or buprenorphine (brand name Subutex).

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Opioid use disorder is a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes significant impairment or distress.
Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, as well as for executions in the United States.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BDNFbrain derived neurotrophic factorbrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) has been shown to mediate opioid-induced withdrawal symptoms via downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), protein kinase B (AKT), and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2).
Increased levels of BDNF can induce a change to an opiate-dependent-like reward state when expressed in the ventral tegmental area in rats.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.

CYP2B6

2B6CYP2B6 inhibitors
Methadone toxicity has been shown to be associated with specific phenotypes of CYP2B6.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Addiction and dependence are components of a substance use disorder.
Some examples are using benzodiazepines for alcohol detoxification, which prevents delirium tremens and complications; using a slow taper of benzodiazepines or a taper of phenobarbital, sometimes including another antiepileptic agent such as gabapentin, pregabalin, or valproate, for withdrawal from barbiturates or benzodiazepines; using drugs such as baclofen to reduce cravings and propensity for relapse amongst addicts to any drug, especially effective in stimulant users, and alcoholics (in which it is nearly as effective as benzodiazepines in preventing complications); using clonidine, an alpha-agonist, and loperamide for opioid detoxification, for first-time users or those who wish to attempt an abstinence-based recovery (90% of opioid users relapse to active addiction within eight months or are multiple relapse patients); or replacing an opioid that is interfering with or destructive to a user's life, such as illicitly-obtained heroin, dilaudid, or oxycodone, with an opioid that can be administered legally, reduces or eliminates drug cravings, and does not produce a high, such as methadone or buprenorphine – opioid replacement therapy – which is the gold standard for treatment of opioid dependence in developed countries, reducing the risk and cost to both user and society more effectively than any other treatment modality (for opioid dependence), and shows the best short-term and long-term gains for the user, with the greatest longevity, least risk of fatality, greatest quality of life, and lowest risk of relapse and legal issues including arrest and incarceration.