Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opiumopiatesopium smugglingreintroductiondrug traffickersliquid opiummorphinenarcotic capsule
Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is dried latex obtained from the seed capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum.wikipedia
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Papaver somniferum

opium poppyopium poppiespoppy
Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is dried latex obtained from the seed capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum.
It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens.

Opiate

opiatesOpiate drugOpiate pathway
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.

Papaverine

Papaverine hydrochloride
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Illegal drug trade

drug traffickingdrug dealerdrug dealing
Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium; this led to the First Opium War (1839-1842) between the United Kingdom and Qing-dynasty China.

Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'ine
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

Thebaine

thebaïne
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
A minor constituent of opium, thebaine is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but has stimulatory rather than depressant effects.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.
Morphine has classically been divided in two classes, where class I (also known as "Morphine base") is a brown non-water-soluble powder made of concentrated opium and class II, after a chemical process, becomes a white water-soluble powder.

Laudanum

tincture of opiumlaudanineopium tincture
The use of Paracelsus' laudanum was introduced to Western medicine in 1527, when Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, better known by the name Paracelsus, returned from his wanderings in Arabia with a famous sword, within the pommel of which he kept "Stones of Immortality" compounded from opium thebaicum, citrus juice, and "quintessence of gold".
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).

Kubla Khan

Xanaduepic poemKubla Khan or a Vision in a Dream
De Quincey writes about the great English Romantic poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834), whose "Kubla Khan" is also widely considered to be a poem of the opium experience.
According to Coleridge's preface to Kubla Khan, the poem was composed one night after he experienced an opium-influenced dream after reading a work describing Xanadu, the summer palace of the Mongol ruler and Emperor of China Kublai Khan.

Opium and Romanticism

effects of opium on literary creationliterary accounts of opium addictionOpium and the Romantic Imagination'' (1968)
Thomas De Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1822), one of the first and most famous literary accounts of opium addiction written from the point of view of an addict, details the pleasures and dangers of the drug.
Opium and Romanticism are well-connected subjects, as readers of Romantic poetry often come into contact with literary criticisms about the influence of opium on its works.

First Opium War

FirstOpium WarFirst Anglo-Chinese War
A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium smuggling led to the First Opium War (1839–1842), in which Britain defeated China. Gladstone was fiercely against both of the Opium Wars Britain waged in China in the First Opium War initiated in 1840 and the Second Opium War initiated in 1857, denounced British violence against Chinese, and was ardently opposed to the British trade in opium to China.
Chinese officials clamped down on the banned opium trade, and threatened the death penalty to future offenders, causing offence toward the British government.

Destruction of opium at Humen

A massive destruction of opiumdestroyed 20,000 cases of opium that the British smuggled into China in 1839destroyed in public
A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium smuggling led to the First Opium War (1839–1842), in which Britain defeated China.
The destruction of opium at Humen began on 3June 1839 and involved the destruction of 1,000 long tons (1,016 t) of allegedly illegal opium seized from British traders under the aegis of Lin Zexu, an Imperial Commissioner of Qing China.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

ColeridgeSamuel ColeridgeS. T. Coleridge
De Quincey writes about the great English Romantic poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834), whose "Kubla Khan" is also widely considered to be a poem of the opium experience.
He was treated for these conditions with laudanum, which fostered a lifelong opium addiction.

Demeter

DemetraChloeDemeter Chloe
Poppies also frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Asklepios, Pluto, Demeter, Aphrodite, Kybele and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion.
According to Kernyi, "It seems probable that the Great Mother Goddess who bore the names Rhea and Demeter, brought the poppy with her from her Cretan cult to Eleusis and it is almost certain that in the Cretan cult sphere opium was prepared from poppies."

Madak

Tobacco mixed with opium was called madak (or madat) and became popular throughout China and its seafaring trade partners (such as Taiwan, Java, and the Philippines) in the 17th century.
Madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational drug in 16th- and 17th-century China.

History of medicine

medical historianmedicinehistorian of medicine
Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides, Galen, and Avicenna.
Few effective drugs existed, beyond opium and quinine.

Opium den

opium densopium houses
Chinese emigrants to cities such as San Francisco, London, and New York brought with them the Chinese manner of opium smoking, and the social traditions of the opium den.
An opium den was an establishment where opium was sold and smoked.

Thomas De Quincey

De QuinceyThomas DeQuinceyThomas de Quincy
Thomas De Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1822), one of the first and most famous literary accounts of opium addiction written from the point of view of an addict, details the pleasures and dangers of the drug.
In 1804, while at Oxford, he began the occasional use of opium.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.
Heroin is derived from opium through a process involving various chemicals such as acetone and acetic anhydride.

Latex

latex rubbermilkrubber latex
Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is dried latex obtained from the seed capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum.
Dried latex from the opium poppy is called opium, the source of several useful analgesic alkaloids such as codeine, thebaine, and morphine, the latter two of which can then further be used in the synthesis and manufacture of other (typically stronger) opioids for medicinal use, and of heroin for the illegal drug trade.

East India Company

British East India CompanyHonourable East India CompanyEnglish East India Company
During the Qing dynasty, China opened itself to foreign trade under the Canton System through the port of Guangzhou (Canton), with traders from the East India Company visiting the port by the 1690s.
Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East-Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade, particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, spices, saltpetre, tea, and opium.

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Rhazesal-RaziMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
The Muslim physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi of Persian origin ("Rhazes", 845–930 CE) maintained a laboratory and school in Baghdad, and was a student and critic of Galen; he made use of opium in anesthesia and recommended its use for the treatment of melancholy in Fi ma-la-yahdara al-tabib, "In the Absence of a Physician", a home medical manual directed toward ordinary citizens for self-treatment if a doctor was not available.
He recommended as a laxative, " 7 drams of dried violet flowers with 20 pears, macerated and well mixed, then strained. Add to this filtrate, 20 drams of sugar for a drink. In cases of melancholy, he invariably recommended prescriptions, which included either poppies or its juice (opium), Cuscuta epithymum (clover dodder) or both. For an eye-remedy, he advised myrrh, saffron, and frankincense, 2 drams each, to be mixed with 1 dram of yellow arsenic formed into tablets. Each tablet was to be dissolved in a sufficient quantity of coriander water and used as eye drops.

Mithridate

mithridatiummithridatizationmithridato
Use of opium as a cure-all was reflected in the formulation of mithridatium described in the 1728 Chambers Cyclopedia, which included true opium in the mixture.
Ephraim Chambers, in his 1728 Cyclopaedia, says "Mithridate is one of the capital Medicines in the Apothecaries Shops, being composed of a vast Number of Drugs, as Opium, Myrrh, Agaric, Saffron, Ginger, Cinnamon, Spikenard, Frankincense, Castor, Pepper, Gentian, &c".

Daoguang Emperor

DaoguangDaoguang eraDaoguang period
A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium smuggling led to the First Opium War (1839–1842), in which Britain defeated China.
During the Daoguang Emperor's reign, China experienced major problems with opium, which was imported into China by British merchants.

Opium Wars

carrying opiumcontrabanddisastrous wars
Gladstone was fiercely against both of the Opium Wars Britain waged in China in the First Opium War initiated in 1840 and the Second Opium War initiated in 1857, denounced British violence against Chinese, and was ardently opposed to the British trade in opium to China.
The Opium Wars were two wars in the mid-19th century involving Great Qing and the British Government and concerned their imposition of trade of opium upon China.