Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opiumopiatesreintroductiondrug traffickersliquid opiummorphinenarcotic capsuleopiate
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).wikipedia
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Papaver somniferum

opium poppyopium poppiespoppy
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum). Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.
It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens.

Opiate

opiatesOpiate pathwayopioid
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.

Papaverine

Eupaverinumpapaverine hydrochloride
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Illegal drug trade

drug traffickingdrug dealerdrug dealing
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum). Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium; this led to the First Opium War (1839-1842) between the United Kingdom and Qing-dynasty China.

Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'ine
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

Hydromorphone

dilaudiddihydromorphinonedilaudide
In modern times, much of the thebaine, which often serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum.
Very small quantities of hydromorphone are detected in assays of opium on rare occasions; it appears to be produced by the plant under circumstances and by processes which are not understood at this time.

Thebaine

thebaïne
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.
A minor constituent of opium, thebaine is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but has stimulatory rather than depressant effects.

Laudanum

tincture of opiumlaudanineopium tincture
The use of Paracelsus' laudanum was introduced to Western medicine in 1527, when Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, better known by the name Paracelsus, returned from his wanderings in Arabia with a famous sword, within the pommel of which he kept "Stones of Immortality" compounded from opium thebaicum, citrus juice, and "quintessence of gold".
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).

Opium and Romanticism

effects of opium on literary creationliterary accounts of opium addictionOpium and the Romantic Imagination'' (1968)
Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1822), one of the first and most famous literary accounts of opium addiction written from the point of view of an addict, details the pleasures and dangers of the drug.
Readers of Romantic poetry usually come into contact with literary criticisms about the influence of opium on its works.

Kubla Khan

XanaduKubla Khan or a Vision in a DreamKubla Khan: A Vision
De Quincey writes about the great English Romantic poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834), whose "Kubla Khan" is also widely considered to be a poem of the opium experience.
According to Coleridge's preface to "Kubla Khan", the poem was composed one night after he experienced an opium-influenced dream after reading a work describing Xanadu, the summer palace of the Mongol ruler and Emperor of China Kublai Khan.

Opium den

opium densopium houses
Global regulation of opium began with the stigmatization of Chinese immigrants and opium dens in San Francisco, California.
An opium den was an establishment where opium was sold and smoked.

Destruction of opium at Humen

A massive destruction of opiumdestroyed 20,000 cases of opium that the British smuggled into China in 1839destroyed in public
A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium imports led to the First Opium War (1839–1842), in which Britain defeated China.
The destruction of opium at Humen began on 3June 1839 and involved the destruction of 1,000 long tons (1,016 t) of illegal opium seized from British traders under the aegis of Lin Zexu, an Imperial Commissioner of Qing China.

First Opium War

FirstOpium WarFirst Anglo-Chinese War
A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium imports led to the First Opium War (1839–1842), in which Britain defeated China.
To counter this imbalance, the British East India Company began to auction opium grown in India to independent foreign traders in exchange for silver, and in doing so strengthened its trading influence in Asia.

Opium production in Afghanistan

AfghanistanopiumAfghan drug cartels
Illicit opium production, now dominated by Afghanistan, was damaged in 2000, when production was banned by the Taliban, but has increased steadily since the fall of the Taliban and western occupation in 2001 and over the course of the war in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan has been the world's leading illicit opium producer since 1992 (excluding the year 2001).

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

ColeridgeSamuel ColeridgeS. T. Coleridge
De Quincey writes about the great English Romantic poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834), whose "Kubla Khan" is also widely considered to be a poem of the opium experience.
He was treated for these conditions with laudanum, which fostered a lifelong opium addiction.

Demeter

ChloeDemetraChthonia Demetra
Poppies also frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Asklepios, Pluto, Demeter, Aphrodite, Kybele and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion.
According to Kernyi, "It seems probable that the Great Mother Goddess who bore the names Rhea and Demeter, brought the poppy with her from her Cretan cult to Eleusis and it is almost certain that in the Cretan cult sphere opium was prepared from poppies."

History of medicine

medical historianmedicinehistorian of medicine
Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides, Galen, and Avicenna.
Few effective drugs existed, beyond opium and quinine.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum). Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.
Morphine is the most abundant opiate found in opium, the dried latex extracted by shallowly scoring the unripe seedpods of the Papaver somniferum poppy.

Madak

Tobacco mixed with opium was called madak (or madat) and became popular throughout China and its seafaring trade partners (such as Taiwan, Java, and the Philippines) in the 17th century.
Madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational drug in 16th and 17th century China.

Meconium

meconium ileusmeconiafecal matter
The word "meconium" (derived from the Greek for "opium-like", but now used to refer to infant stools) historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies.
The Latin term meconium derives from the Greek μηκώνιον, mēkōnion, a diminutive of μήκων, mēkōn, i.e. poppy, in reference either to its tarry appearance that may resemble some raw opium preparations, or to Aristotle's belief that it induces sleep in the fetus.

Thomas De Quincey

De QuinceyDe Quincey, ThomasQuincey
Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1822), one of the first and most famous literary accounts of opium addiction written from the point of view of an addict, details the pleasures and dangers of the drug.
In 1804, while at Oxford, he began the occasional use of opium.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum). Approximately 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade.
Heroin is derived from opium through a process involving various chemicals such as acetone and acetic anhydride.

Prohibition of drugs

illegal drugdrug prohibitionprohibition
Opium was prohibited in many countries during the early 20th century, leading to the modern pattern of opium production as a precursor for illegal recreational drugs or tightly regulated legal prescription drugs.
In late Qing Imperial China, opium imported by the British East India Company was consumed by all social classes in Southern China.

East India Company

British East India CompanyBritishHonourable East India Company
In India, its cultivation, as well as the manufacture and traffic to China, were subject to the British East India Company (BEIC), as a strict monopoly of the British government.
Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade, particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, spices, saltpetre, tea, and opium.

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Rhazesal-RaziRazi
The Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi ("Rhazes", 845–930 CE) maintained a laboratory and school in Baghdad, and was a student and critic of Galen; he made use of opium in anesthesia and recommended its use for the treatment of melancholy in Fi ma-la-yahdara al-tabib, "In the Absence of a Physician", a home medical manual directed toward ordinary citizens for self-treatment if a doctor was not available.
He recommended as a laxative, " 7 drams of dried violet flowers with 20 pears, macerated and well mixed, then strained. Add to this filtrate, 20 drams of sugar for a drink. In cases of melancholy, he invariably recommended prescriptions, which included either poppies or its juice (opium), Cuscuta epithymum (clover dodder) or both. For an eye-remedy, he advised myrrh, saffron, and frankincense, 2 drams each, to be mixed with 1 dram of yellow arsenic formed into tablets. Each tablet was to be dissolved in a sufficient quantity of coriander water and used as eye drops.