Optic neuropathy

optic atrophyoptic atrophy, autosomal dominantoptic atrophies, hereditarydysthyroid optic neuropathyatrophicmain oneneuropathy and optic atrophyoptic atrophy type 1optic nerve damageoptic nerve dysfunction
Optic neuropathy is damage to the optic nerve from any cause.wikipedia
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Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathyoptic neuropathy, ischemicAION
This form of ischemic optic neuropathy is generally categorized as two types: arteritic AION (or AAION), in which the loss of vision is the result of an inflammatory disease of arteries in the head called temporal arteritis, and non-arteritic AION (abbreviated as NAION, or sometimes simply as AION), which is due to non-inflammatory disease of small blood vessels.

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis
Any cause of optic neuropathy should be ruled out, including demyelinating (multiple sclerosis, and neuromyelitis optica) and systemic disease (diabetic, toxic, nutritional, and infectious causes).

Optic nerve

optic nervesoptical nerveoptic
Optic neuropathy is damage to the optic nerve from any cause.
Glaucoma is a group of diseases involving loss of retinal ganglion cells causing optic neuropathy in a pattern of peripheral vision loss, initially sparing central vision.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

Leber hereditary optic neuropathyoptic atrophy, hereditary, leberLeber optic atrophy
This typically evolves to very severe optic atrophy and a permanent decrease of visual acuity.

Optic neuritis

retrobulbar neuritisinflammation of the optic nerveAcute optic neuritis
Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve, which is associated with swelling and destruction of the myelin sheath covering the optic nerve.

Amiodarone

Amiodarone hydrochlorideCordaroneCardinorm
Optic neuropathy, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (N-AION), occurs in 1-2% of people and is not dosage dependent.

Berk–Tabatznik syndrome

Berk–Tabatznik syndrome is a medical condition with an unknown cause that shows symptoms of short stature, congenital optic atrophy and brachytelephalangy.

Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy

toxic and nutritional optic neuropathiesoptic neuropathyToxic neuropathies
Continued damage to the optic nerve results in the development of optic atrophy, classically seen as temporal pallor of the optic disc.

Glaucoma

open-angle glaucomaangle closure glaucomaacute angle-closure glaucoma
The inconsistent relationship of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with increased intraocular pressure has provoked hypotheses and studies on anatomic structure, eye development, nerve compression trauma, optic nerve blood flow, excitatory neurotransmitter, trophic factor, retinal ganglion cell/axon degeneration, glial support cell, immune system, aging mechanisms of neuron loss, and severing of the nerve fibers at the scleral edge.

Peripheral neuropathy

neuropathyneuropathiesneuropathic
Damage and death of these nerve cells, or neurons, leads to characteristic features of optic neuropathy.

Ophthalmoscopy

ophthalmoscopefundoscopyfundoscopic
On medical examination, the optic nerve head can be visualised by an ophthalmoscope.

Lateral geniculate nucleus

lateral geniculate bodyLGNlateral geniculate
In short, optic atrophy is the end result of any disease that damages nerve cells anywhere between the retinal ganglion cells and the lateral geniculate body (anterior visual system).

Multiple sclerosis

MSmultiple sclerosis (MS)disseminated sclerosis
Optic neuritis, when combined with the presence of multiple demyelinating white matter brain lesions on MRI, is suspicious for multiple sclerosis.

Sarcoidosis

pulmonary sarcoidosissarcoidBoeck's sarcoid
The most common inflammatory disorder that infiltrates the optic nerve is sarcoidosis.

Nose-blowing

Blowing one's nosenose blowingblowing of the nose
In patients with an orbital fracture, vomiting or nose blowing can force air into the orbit and possibly compromise the integrity of the optic nerve.

Mitochondrion

mitochondriamitochondrialmitochondrial membrane
Mitochondria play a central role in maintaining the life cycle of retinal ganglion cells because of their high energy dependence.

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

pernicious anemiapernicious anaemiaanemia, pernicious
However, the optic neuropathy associated with pernicious anemia and vitamin B 12 deficiency can even be seen in well-nourished individuals.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
There was an epidemic of nutritional optic neuropathy among afflicted Allied prisoners of war of the Japanese during World War II.

Methanol

methyl alcoholwood alcoholCH 3 OH
This can be a life-threatening event that normally accidentally occurs when the victim mistook, or substituted, methanol for ethyl alcohol.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
This can be a life-threatening event that normally accidentally occurs when the victim mistook, or substituted, methanol for ethyl alcohol.